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Full text of "Ladies' manual of art : or, Profit and pastime : a self teacher in all branches of decorative art, embracing every variety of painting and drawing on china, glass, velvet, canvas, paper and wood"

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OR 

PROFIT AND 

A SELF TEACHER IN 

5 Of 
EMBRACING EVERY VARIETY Of 



* AND * DRAWING 



j) fetrjii)^ (silass. V/elvef, (diarjvets, Jgaper 1 arja tt/ca. 
THE SECRET OF ALL 

TRANSPARENCIES, SKETCHING FROM NATURE. 
PASTEL^CRAYON DRAWING, TAXIDERMY, Etc. 






CHICAGO: 

DONOHUE, HENNEBERRY & CO, 

407-425 DEARBORN STREET i 

1890 



COPYRIGHT, 

1887. 
Amir lean Mutual 
Library Association 





N presenting to the public and our artistically inclined 
people our " Art Manual " we should do so with some 
trepidation had we not the assurance, in placing before 
them this work, that it would instantly win its way into their 
favor by its merits. Most books produced by the press of the 
present day are novels, compilations, scientific and theolog- 
ical ones, meeting as they do only certain classes, and are 
subjects which have been constantly before the people. We 
present you a "new book" in every sense of the word. We 
propose entering with our readers into the beautiful realms 
of Art, than which there is no more interesting subject; our 
object being its promotion and dissemination. We want to 
see the great majority of our refined, educated, but needy 
women embrace it as a source of profit as well as pleasure, 
many of whom with an intellect for greater things, but inca- 
pable of muscular labor or exposure, can, by applying them- 
selves energetically to this occupation, earn a good livelihood 
and famous name, and assist in disseminating its beauties 
everywhere. Many homes are there in our land, which they can 
ornament, and embellish to their profit, and the pleasure of 
others. Those comfortably situated in life, whose home 
decorations they prefer to be the product of their own hands, 



will hail our " Manual " as "a friend indeed." To the child 
in whom is observed traits of genius it will be of invaluable 
assistance in developing those traits. Our aim is to combine 
in this work all the different methods of producing portraits, 
landscapes, painting on canvas, wood, china, etc., etc., to 
furnish to all lovers of the useful and beautiful in art a true 
teacher, making every instruction so plain and comprehensive, 
that a child can grasp the meaning. In thus combining all 
these arts in one volume, we save the learner the expense of 
purchasing a large number of books at a cost which effect- 
ually precludes the possibility of many engaging in this 
profitable and pleasant occupation. Then, to those whose 
tastes are artistically inclined, and who find it most incon- 
venient to obtain instructions in all the branches desired; to 
those in whom genius lies dormant and whom necessity com- 
pels to earn their own livelihood; to those who desire to 
combine pastime with pleasure, and to those who have the 
means, tastes and desire but not the necessary assistance at 
hand to ornament their homes, we respectfully dedicate our 

"Art Manual." 

THE PUBLISHERS. 




f 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 




x learning the art of drawing or writing, like all other 
Arts and Sciences, there are certain first and fixed prin- 
ciples to be observed as a foundation upon which the 

whole is built. A right understanding of these is abso- 
lutely necessary that we may become masters of that art which 
we undertake to learn. A neglect of these first principles is the 
reason why so many who have spent time sufficient to become 
accomplished artists, are, after all their pains and loss of time, 
incapable of producing even fair work ; and are often at a loss 
to know how to begin. Many commence by copying the work 
of others, and are surprised to find how little such ability avails 
them when attempting to make sketches from nature. The in- 
struction for those who intend prosecuting this delightful study, 
is prepared with great care by the author, who has had very many 
years of experience in landscape drawing. 'Tis true that much 
of his ability has been attained by years' of patient industry 
and practice. Yet time might have been saved by little earlier 
attention to principles and study of works on the subject, pre- 
pared by experts. The best advice to those contemplating a study 
of the art who possess any degree of skill in the use of the 
pencil, is to go out into the field, with the "instructor" in one 
hand and your sketch-book in the other, select some object of 
interest, and " take it in." If not satisfactory, try again be not 
too easily discouraged. You will find the study of nature a 
source of pleasure, objects of interest will appear on every hand, 



G INTRODUCTORY. 

in the valleys, on the mountains, the lakes, or by the river side, 
and as you become familiar with the scenes in nature, difficulties 
will disappear, and you are happy in the thought that sketching 
from nature is truly one of the most pure and refined of intel- 
lectual pleasures and professions, and the sketch-book with you, 
as with the writer, will ever be a chosen companion. 

When this branch of the work has been completed, and the 
landscape transferred to paper and shaded up, the most difficult 
part of the task is accomplished. The next essential element 
in the advancement of the picture, and that which renders it 
more beautiful to the eye, is color. Tis well to turn aside from 
your unfinished landscape or portrait, and study the colors in 
nature, the mixing of tints, and how to apply them, as shown on 
a subsequent page of this book. 

To become an artist requires only a love for the art, a good eye, 
and an abundance of continuity. 





Sketching from Nature. How to Make a Drawing Linear Per- 
spective Materials Terms in a Picture Lines in Nature Line 
of Beauty Landscapes Selecting a Position Lights and Shades 9 

Colors in Nature. Primary Colors Advantages of Colors Colors 
of a Spectrum Mixtures of Colors Transmission of Light Pure 
"White, Black, Gray, Green Neutralization of Colors .... 23 

Pen and Pencil Drawing. Paper Used for Transferring Prepara- 
tion of Paper Method of Transferring Shading by Pen Penta- 
graph How to Use it- -Copying with Transparent Paper ... 27 

Pastel Painting. Crayons and Pastels Paper Used Exposure to 
the Sun Colors Employed Colors of Paper Mounting the Pict- 
ure Sketching In the Outlines Applying the Crayon Colors 
and Composition of Tints Background 29 

Landscape Painting in Crayon. Paper Arranging the Paper 
Drawing Using the Colors Fixing the Drawing Materials for 
Pastel Drawing ' 33 

Monochromatic Drawing. Directions Materials Used Shades 
Blending Sky Mountains Water Moonlight Old Ruins, etc. 37 

Water Colors. Instructions Colors Used for Sky and Distances 
Hills Trees Foreground Sky Moonlight, etc. Selecting the 
Paper Different Kinds Brushes Other Materials Colors 
Used 38 

Landscape Painting in Oil Colors. Technical Names and Materials 
Used Mixing of Tints How to Apply Them A Glaze Impast- 
ing Scrambling Handling Light Brushes Materials 
Used Canvas Prepared Paper Mill-boards Panels Palettes 
A Dipper Rest Stick Knives Easels Vehicles Mixed 
Tints 45 

Oil Photo. Miniature or Cameo Oil Improved Method Treating 
the Photograph Paste Preparation The Glass Cleaning Colors 
Applied Wedges Caution Directions for Coloring Second 
Method Ivory Type or Mezzotint Mounting the Photograph 

Materials Used Another Plan 55 

Photo Painting in Water Colors. Selecting Photograph Prepar- 
ing the Photo Colors Used Coloring Background, Face, Eyes, 
Mouth, Hair, Clothing Shadowing 60 



Russian or Egyptian Method. To Produce First Class Picture 

Applying Colors Palette Liquid Colors Used Brushes . . 63 
Making Photographs. Gelatine Dry-plate Process The Outfit 
Fillingthe Plate-Holder Taking the Picture Making Negatives 
Chemical Outfit Directions for Using Chemicals Instructions 
Summarized Making Prints from Negatives Sensitized Paper 

Prints Toning Process Mounting Pictures 65 

Draughtsmen's Sensitive Paper for Copying Drawings. Direc- 
tions How to Use Printing by Exposure 70 

Wood Painting. From the German General Preliminaries 
Requisites Colors Transferring the Drawing on Wood Enlarg- 
ing and Reducing Designs Divisions of Wood Surface Tracing 
and Transferring Designs Fixing Transferred Design Color- 
ingRetouching Wood Articles Polishing Designs .... 71 

Transparencies. Instructions General Directions 81 

Crystal, or Oriental Painting. Materials Used Colors Used 

Directions 83 

Antique Italian Landscape Painting. Style of the Painting 
Transferring Quality of the Glass Used Materials Direc- 
tions Paints Used 85 

Grecian Oil Painting. Selecting the Engraving Applications 
Method of Painting Mixing the Paints Eyes, Hair, Flesh 

Suggestions Colors Brushes 87 

Ornamental Glass Sign Work. Lettering Door Plates Ornament- 
ing Glass Work, Boxes, etc. Instructions Lettering the Glass- 
Holding the Letters Next Process Remaining Directions Ar- 
ticles Used Note 89 

Vitremanie. Easy and Inexpensive Decoration of Windows, 
Churches, Public Buildings, Private Houses, etc. Supersedes 
Diaphanie Defects of Diaphanie Materials Used in Vitremanie 
Simple Instructions Applying the Design Removing the 

Paper Arranging the Designs 91 

Diaphanie. Similarity to Decalcomanie Materials Required 

The Application Designs Used 93 

Painting on Silk. Satin and SilkIts Beauty and Popularity- 
Transferring Painting Directions Using Colors Lightly 
Raised Work Colors Used Bringing out the Picture .... 94 
Staining Wood and Ivory. Yellow Mahogany Black, Red, Blue, 

Purple Acids and Materials Used 96 

Crystalline Surfaces. Paper, Wood, and Glass Mixture Used- 
Application Directions 97 

China Painting. On China, Porcelain, Earthenware, and Enamel- 
Colors Used Process of Burning In Tracing and Drawinir 



First Method Second Method Third Method Cleaning 
Brushes Composition, Use, and Mixing of Colors Classification 
of Colors Tests Fusibility Thickness Mediums Conduct of 
the Work Special Information Concerning Painting Colors 
Mode of Use Mixtures Concordance of Enamel with Moist 
and Oil Colors Technical Names 99 

Monochrome. China Painting Painting on Porcelain or Earthen- 
ware Tints of Monochromes Sketching In Painting the Head 
Hair Flesh Tints Drapery Retouching M. Lacroix's 
Colors Finishing the Monochrome General Suggestions . . Ill 

China Painting. Painting the Head in Colors on Porcelain Draw- 
ing and Sketching In Highly Colored Faces Cast Shadows 
Painting the Lips Blue Eyes Fair Hair Colored Draperies 
The Palette 115 

China Painting. Style of Boucher Flowers, Fruits, Birds and 
Landscape on Porcelain Retouching Leaves Peaches Instruc- 
tions on Landscapes The Sky Trunks of Trees Branches 
Houses Ground Water Strengthening Touches Directions 
for Packing 118 

Terra Cotta Painting. Enamel, Oil and Water Color Painting on 
Terra Cotta Special Instructions Materials and Brushes Used 123 

Burning In. Mineral Decalcomanie New and Beautiful Art 
Transferring Pictures to China and Other Ware Imitating Ex- 
actly Beautiful Painting Directions, Materials Required, 
Designs, Numbers, Prices 126 

Natural Flowers. Preservation Hot Water System Sandwich 
Island Process Sand Drying Method Last Process .... 129 

Paper-Flower Making. Arrangement of Bouquets Materials 
Used Directions for Using Wire, Silk, etc. Crimson Rhododen- 
dron White Camelia, Rose, Pink Fuchsia Grouping Flowers 
Examples List of Materials, Tools, etc 134 

French Art Decorating Wood, Leather, Silk, etc. To Decorate 
Delicate Fabrics Another Method Decorating Dark Colored 
Articles Choice of Subjects Covered Designs List of Subjects 
that can be Decorated General Suggestions 143 

The Wax Art Flowers and Fruit Instructions for Making Wax 
and Molds Materials Used, etc. Molding Preparing Wax To 
Mold a Calla Lily Painting Variegated Flowers Directions for 
Sheeting Wax Molding Wax Fruit Oranges, Apples, Peaches, 
Grapes, etc. Special Instructions Leaf Molds, Wires, Steel Mold- 
ing Pins, Moss, Miscellaneous Articles, Colored Wax .... 146 

Sprinkle Work. Decoration of Wood and China Ornaments Its 
Ease and Beauty Utensils Process Special Directions Var 



nishing and Polishing Sprinkle Work on China Veins Colors 
Generally and Satisfactorily Used General Suggestions . . . 154 

Pearl Embroidery. Fish Scales To Prepare Them Drawing the 
Pattern of Leaf Directions 161 

Feather Flowers. Instructions to Begin Color of Feathers 
Dyeing Renewing Ostrich Feathers 162 

Lustral Bronze Painting. Preparations Instructions Copy from 
Engravings Stems of Trees Second Shade Figures Parts of 
Mountains Varnishing Suggestions Gilding 164 

Japanese Art. Gathering Leaves Directions 16.") 

Staining Glass. Causes of Decay Of Glass Painting Colors Used 
Classes Process of Laying the Colors Peinture et Apprfit 
Ground or Foundation The Vehicle Most Suitable Oil Palette 
Pigments Fused Colors Illuminated Colors New Tone of 
Color Mosaic Glass Painting Cartoons Cutting Over-laid 
Glass Colored Pot Metal 169 

Gilding Glass. Preparations Cutting Figures and Ornaments 
most Important Secret General Suggestions 179 

Etching on Copper. Heating Dabbing Smoking Etching 
Fluid for the Purpose Directions 181 

Kensington Painting. Its Progress and Popularity Materials 
Used Colors Necessary Applying Colors Flowers, Leaves 
Instructions 185 

Arrasene Embroidery. Novelty and Beauty Wool and Silk Arra- 
sene A Wild Rose Blind Stitch Double Rose Daisies^- 
Forget-me-not Leaves Stems Full Instructions .... 1S9 

Portraiture in Black Crayon. Careful Instructions Paper Cut- 
ting and Trimming Dampening and Framing Selecting Mate- 
rials Enlarging the Photograph Tracing Carefulness Feat- 
ures Pupils of the Eyes Iris Nose Lips Blending Process 
The Hair The Drapery Collar and Shirt Front The Back- 
ground Lace Work Finishing General Important Sugges- 
tions 191 

Analysis of Colors. Nature and Quality Blues Reds Browns 
Mixing Compound Tints for the Face Tints and Colors Pro- 
ducing them Transparent Colors Semi-Transparent Contrast 

and Harmony of Colors 197 

Taxidermy. Profit, Usefulness and Beauty Skinning Mounting 
in General Preserving Spiders and Insects Shell Fish 
Polishing Shells Collecting Animals Recipes General and 
Special Instructions , , , , - 203 








DATURG 



@ 



"GOD HAS DIFFUSED BEAUTY, AND ART HAS COMBINED IT." 

Houssaye. 



SKETCH is a graphic memorandum. "The field of labor 
| J is the wide world of nature her beautiful truths the 
trw lessons to be learned by heart. Once fairly Avithin her 
^W school, Art awakens to a life of sympathy with its 
"i%T teacher that lasts forever." A capacity for drawing means 
more than producing a linear representation. The sculptor 
draws when he models the plastic clay into imitative or ideal 
creations. The painter draws when he disposes his pigments 
with like impulse. The stalwart smith draws when he shapes 



10 SKETCHING JrliOM XATUBE. 

the heated metal into form. He that cannot draw a crooked 
line, cannot draw a straight one, and he who cannot draw a 
.<t might line, the simplest, easiest, and most comprehensible, has 
certainly much to learn, and should begin with it. 

In Making a Drawing from Nature, we start out with 
one of two things in view, a desire to make a perfect copy of 
the scene before us, or a wish to make a choice selection 
from the whole, and arrange it to suit our fancy. The first 
is historic, from the fact of its being a true and faithful 
copy. The second is called poetic, as the effort is for beauty of 
arrangement and general make up. In the latter, the artist is 
generally better satisfied with his effort when the picture is com- 
plete, than if he followed closely to the laborious work of per- 
fectly copying that which is not altogether interesting. But at 
the same time the first, that of picturing facts, must form the 
basis of the art. By it we acquire a knowledge of detail, and 
store the mind with true nature, Avhich is essential in good work. 
A true and faithful copy is what is sought after. In following 
our own fancy, we go out into the field and select from a combi- 
nation of objects, and make up our picture. We find a log cabin 
standing beside a rocky stream of rippling water, which is 
spanned by an ancient log bridge ; in another place we find cows 
grazing ; and again a horseman is coming down the road. We 
combine the three. The cattle are driven into the stream, the 
horse and his rider are brought into and form a part of the pic- 
ture, which is now complete. 

In sketching from nature it is first essential that we should be 
trained to some extent in a course of perspective drawing. 

Linear Perspective is the application of the principles of 
geometry to the accurate delineation of the principal lines of 
the picture. Drawing on a plain surface an object as it appears, 
or as it would appear on a pane of glass, held between you and 
the object. 

Perspective is absolutely necessary in drawing from nature, not 



SKETCHING PROM KATtJRfi. ll 

only in perfecting finished work, but in all circumstances. Theo- 
retically, as well as practically, it bears more or less upon all the 
great requisites of perfection in art. We can by its aid, select 
our own point of observation, even though it be imaginary. 

Materials. Of the variety of instruments and materials for 
drawing and sketching, there is the lead pencil of different de- 
grees of hardness, and tint; then there is the French crayon, 
tinted crayons, etc. ; French sketching boards, prepared of various 
tints, witli skies, and suggestive effects ready laid in; "solid 
sketching blocks," bound as a portfolio, will be found conven- 
ient. Paper for "cartoons" can be obtained of most any size, up 
to six feet wide. 

In a Picture we have Six Terms, the center of the pic- 
ture, or center of view, the distance of the picture, the base line, 
the horizontal line, the perpendicular line, the point of view. 

Lines in Nature. It is a remarkable fact that all the lines 
in nature are curve lines, the body of trees, the branches and 
their leaves, and the fruit that grows thereon ; the blades of 
grass, and flowers in the field ; the swells of the ocean, the hills 
and hollows, are all composed of curved lines. Nature is all 
loveliness and perfection, all her effects are true, and the desire of 
the student should be to realize them thoroughly, and let nature, 
and nature alone, be the teacher, following her faithfully, in the 
full assurance of the attainment of truth, whatever else he may 
fail to accomplish. 

Then let the pencil, the servant of thought, 
Copy the lessons which nature has taught; 
For the skillful hand of the artist entwines," 1 
No garland more fair than her beautiful lines. 



12 SKETCHING FROM NATURE. 



A LESSON IN DRAWING. 

BEFORE going into the field to make a sketch, it is essential 
you become familiar with the different lines used in drawing, 
the less difficulty you will have in sketching from nature. 
The first effort will be to get control of the hand and pencil, 
or pen, which is the leading essential in learning to write 
or draw. Secondly, a right understanding of the straight and 
curve lines used cannot be dispensed with. A neglect of 
these first principles, and the want of a thorough drilling by 
an experienced teacher, in our educational institutions, is the 
leading difficulty in the advancement of students in these 
branches, and has often been a subject of comment. 

There are three leading lines in drawing, the straight horizon- 
tal line, thus : 

made by carrying the pencil from left to right, and vice versa, 
beginning and ending abruptly ; then perpendicular ones, com- 
mencing at the top, draw the pencil down ; 
then. a straight oblique line, with 52 deg. slant, 
which is about the proper angle for writing. 

The right and left curve is used as the 
beginning and ending of all the small letters. 




Fig. 1. 

The Line of Beauty, as it is called, is the two curves com- 
bined ; commencing at the top, making first the left and then the 
right line, equal in length, forming a compound curve, the 
basis of two-thirds of all the capital letters. A combination of 
curves lying horizontally, as in fig. 2, gives the line which is 



SKETCHING FROM NATURE. 



13 



formed by the meeting of the lips, from these different lines our 
sketches from nature are made up. 



Fig. 2. 

A curved line changes its direction at every point. 

A circle is a figure comprehended by a single curve line, called 
its circumference, every part of Avhich is equally distant from a 




Fig. 3. 

point called the center. From a to I will be found the left, or 
convex, and from c to d the right, or concave curve. The whole 
may be made by a quick movement of the hand, with crayon, on 
the black-board, thus ; Turn your right side to the board, place 
the crayon at the bottom, c, and with the elbow as the radius, 
carry the crayon toward the left from c to a, and so on until you 
reach the starting point, c, again, moving the hand at as rapid a 
rate as is possible. 

Now, if these lines can all be drawn correct,, and with freedom, 
take the equilateral triangle and practice it without a ruler. 




Fig. 4. 

An angle is the space between two lines that start from the same point. 



14 SKETCHING FROM MATURE. 

The perpendicular line, passing from the vanishing point , to 
the base b. The whole of the fig. 4 forms what appears to us the 
gable of a house, a the point where the rafters meet, b the center 
of the plate. This gives the horizontal, vertical, and oblique lines. 

I shall endeavor to make these lessons clear and concise for 
the beginner, touching only on those points which are indispen- 
sable in learning to draw. Although many of these principles 
you may have acquired, the elements of linear perspective is the 
very first thing to which your attention should be directed. 

Landscapes. All objects which present themselves to the 
eye, such as buildings, forests, fields, mountains, water, &c., 
whether viewed from a hill or on a level, we will call a landscape. 
Now as it is impossible to make an exact copy of the subject be- 
fore us, by means of any transfer process, it can only be effected 
by a distinct apprehension of the real form of the objects them- 
selves, and of those apparent forms under which they are 
presented to the eye, in their different positions in the landscape. 
All these objects have their outlines, composed either of straight 
or curve lines, which may be irregular in their relation to each 
other. Now if we were placed on a flat, horizontal plain, 
the water or ground which we would have in view before us, 
would appear to rise from the spot on which we stood, the limit 
of that rise being determined by a clear and well defined straight 
line, called the horizontal line. It will appear in the lake ; be- 
tween this and the sky no object intervenes. This horizontal or 
boundary line lies directly opposite to the range of the eye, and 
the one to which every other line is referred, and by which the 
accuracy of the drawing is secured. The point where it crosses 
the perpendicular line will be the center of our picture. 

In Placing a Landscape on Paper, first arises the ques- 
tion as to how much of the landscape we will introduce into our 
picture. Let us suppose it to be taken from the point of view, 
then that position of the scene which the eye can easily take in, 



SKETCHTNG FROM NATURE. 15 

without moving the head, will constitute the picture. The space 
included between the point where we are standing and a point 
where our picture commences, establishes the required distance 
of the eye from the proposed picture. Now, if through this 
point a straight line be supposed drawn, perpendicular to the 
horizon, this line will pass through, and determine the foremost 
objects of the picture touching all the leading objects directly 
in front of us. 

Position of the Horizontal Line will depend upon whether 
or not we make the sketch from the ground, or from an elevation. 
If the view be made from the level with it, the horizontal line 
may be drawn at about one-fifth of the space of the paper we 
intend for our picture. If we take the sketch from an elevated 
point, a little above the level of the ground, then the horizontal 
line may be placed at about one-third the height, and so on. If 
the view is to be made from a high hill, or top of the house, place 
the horizontal line at one-half the height. 

Now, in holding up the pencil or ruler horizontally with the 
eye, and on a level with it, you will see what objects will appear 
on that horizontal line. In making a photograph of a building 
it is always best to have the camera a little elevated, and at a 
considerable distance from the object, as a better picture can be 
secured. All horizontal planes seem to ascend if they lie below 
the horizontal line, and to descend if they lie above it, vanish or 
merge into it, as shown in figures 5 and 6. 

In making a sketch from an elevation, the distant part of the 
view seems higher than the foreground. This occurs when 1 the 
point from where the view is taken is too much elevated. A 
better, and much more natural perspective, can be obtained by 
lowering the point of view, which also changes the horizontal line. 

After knowing the position of the horizon of your subject, point 
of sight for the point of distance, you have to extend the line of 
horizon from the point of sight to the limits of such distance. 

For illustration, fasten a thread with a pin to the table, at a 



16 



SKETCHING FROM NATURE. 



point corresponding to the line of the horizon of your picture ; 
a thread thus adjusted will, when drawn out over the picture, fall 
exactly over all the lines seeking 

The Vanishing Point. In this way you get the lines for 
the cornice in a building, or row of buildings, upper and lower 
lines of the windows and doors, base and sidewalk. 

In making a sketch of a building, it is only necessary to get 
the general outlines, and instead of working in all the doors and 
windows, finishing up the cornice, etc., all that is necessary will 
be to get the outline of one door or window, and the style of 
cornice, and indicate the remainder by merely a mark showing 
the position, and make a memorandum of the essential points 
which is seeded in completing the work. In figure 5, street view, 




Fig. 5. 

make a dot on the sketch board at a point where you wish the 
first upper corner of the building to commence, draw a perpen- 
dicular line for the corner, do likewise at such a distance to the 
left as you wish the building to extend on the sketch, and you 
have the other corner. Holding the drawing book perpendicular 
between you and the building, and on a level with the eye, place 
the ruler on the sketch-book corresponding to the upper horizon- 
tal line of the building, and make a line for the cornice, the base 
line is produced in the same manner. The point C, where the 
two lines would meet, were they continued toward the left, will 
be the vanishing point, from which run all the other horizontal 
lines when you come to finish up the drawing. 



SKETCHING FROM NATURE. 



1? 



THE EFFECTS OF THE DRAWING IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS OF 
THE HORIZONTAL LINE. 

A HORIZONTAL right line has, with respect to the plane 
of the picture, one of three positions. It is either par- 
allel to it, oblique to it, or perpendicular to it. We 
will sit with the back against one of the Avails of a 
rectangular room. The wall opposite is parallel to that 
behind us, and consequently to the plane of our picture in that 




Fig. 6 



position. The two remaining walls being at right angles with 
that opposite, are evidently perpendicular to the plane of the 
drawing, and all horizontal right lines on those two walls, are 
also perpendicular to that plane, and will appear to tend towards 
a point immediately opposite to the eye. H. H. is the horizontal 
line or level of sight ; C the point opposite the eye, and that 
point toward which all horizontal right lines on the walls, A & B, 
appear to slant, though in reality they are perpendicular to the 
wall C. The lines 1 & 2, where the ceiling and sidewalls meet, 
and 3 & 4, the lower limit of the walls, as well as the horizontal 
lines of the door, and its panels, are in that position, all perpen- 
dicular to the plane of the opposite wall, and therefore to the 
plane of the drawing. The effects of the drawing in different 
positions of the horizontal line, should be carefully studied ; if it 



18 SKETCHING FROM NATURE. 

be placed above the level of the eye, and removed to the right or 
left, it will appear like this : 



If below the level of the eye, it will assume a direction like this : 



But placed to the right or left of the eye, on a perfect level, and 
horizontal, it will appear thus : 



If drawn from, and directly opposite to the eye, the end may 

appear thus : 



A point has position, but not magnitude. 

If a book, or block of wood, having a square base, be repre- 
sented at different distances, seen from a point in which its sides 




Fig. 7. 

are oblique to the plane of the picture, and seen from both points, 
under the same circumstances in all respects, as regards sur- 
rounding objects, except that the distance of the artist from the 
base line is much less in one than the other, then it will appear 
as do figures 7 and 8. 




Fig. 8. 

A turf ace has length and breadth only. A solid has length, breadth, and 
thickness. 



SKETCHING FROM NATURE. 



l 



Iii figure 7 the distance from us is 
much greater than in figure 8, and the 
vanishing point farther away. We will 
find the first the most pleasing to the eye, 
although both are accurate. In these 
figures we make the two oblique lines of 
the base equal in length, and our position 
directly opposite the center perpendic- 
ular line. If we should change our posi- 
tion further to the right, the left oblique 
line at the base would apparently shorten, 
and vice versa. 

In making a sketch from nature, the 
artist must choose a position that will 
command the best view of the scene about 
to be placed on paper, and from a stand- 
point that will secure the leading objects 
in the landscape before you. Begin by 
sketching those objects nearest you first. 
The reasons will be shown hereafter. 

In attempting to make a "bird's eye" 
view of buildings, where an elevation can- 
not be obtained, it will be found somewhat 
difficult. We can only mark down on the 
sketch-book what can be seen from the 
position we occupy on the level with the 
objects before us, and imagine the remain- 
der. At the same time three things should 
be kept in view, the perspective, the per- 
pendicular lines, and proper elevation, in 
order to give to our picture the appear- 
ance it would have if others viewed it 
from the supposed point of observation 
as the sketcher. 

The intention of the writer has been 



20 SKETCHING FROM NATURE. 

to touch upon all the points and rules in drawing, and dwell upon 
each separately, and sufficient for a person of ordinary ability, 
and a good many grains of continuity, to make a sketch artist. 

"It matters not what a man's vocation may be, if he has the 
taste to discern, and mind to esteem, the good and beautiful in 
nature and art, an expression of refinement will be manifest in 
all that he undertakes." 

In this work I did not expect more than to take the first step 
toward teaching to sketch from nature. An easy, rapid, and 
decided manner of sketching is to be acquired only by practice. 
It is an acquisition essential to excellence in all the other artistic 
qualities, to which if serves as a basis. Having given you the 
necessary instruction, I will now assist you in 

Selecting a Position. Choose a point that will command 
a good view of the scene, and prevent closer and more immediate 
objects from concealing any portion of the remote distance ; and 
though the height of the horizontal line in this case may some- 
times be more than half the height of the paper, according to 
the elevation attained by the artist to command the view. In 
this case the horizontal line is at about one-half the height of 
the paper. It frequently occurs in making a sketch, that the 
artist cannot place himself at the desired point for the best view. 
In such case we will imagine a point above the highest object in 
the foreground of the proposed sketch. That point may be on 
the land, or on the water. The artist, with a knowledge of per- 
spective and elevation in view, may make a memorandum of the 
whole ; but should he attempt to draw it from the point he is 
compelled to see it, no one would recognize it as a truthful rep- 
resentation. AVe regulate the whole by our knowledge of per- 
spective, as accurately as if we stood upon the very spot from 
which we desired to be understood that the view was taken. 

In Making a Bird's Eye View of a village or city, the first 
thing to be done is to get a plat, or outline, of the streets and blocks, 



SKETCHING FROM NATURE. 21 

and mark them on the sketch-book in squares, (or rather diamond 
shape), each line and cross line representing a street. Commence 
sketching in the buildings from the point chosen, which should 
be the one nearest the business center, and where the best houses 
stand, or from a point where you can secure the best material for 
a foreground, such as a stream of water and bridge, or a forest, etc. 
Transfer each block to paper, showing the fronts of one side 
and the rear of the buildings of the other side, and so on 
through the entire row of blocks, when you return to the place 
of starting, and go down the second row, always working toward 
the vanishing point. 

After you have gone over the entire city, and taken every build- 
ing, tree, and other objects of interest, and completed the sketch, 
you are ready for working it up. Lay out the blocks and streets 
on drawing paper, with pencil, in perspective, ruling from the 
vanishing point, the center of the picture, toward the point of 
view, which enlarges the objects of the foreground, and dimin- 
ishes those in the distance. 

In drawing in the buildings, begin with the first house in the 
foreground, drawing the roof lines, which should be parallel 
with the lines of the street ; next the gables, after which the 
corner lines, which should be perpendicular to the drawing paper. 

The drawing should be made first with pencil, and then in ink, 
with fine pointed steel pen ; for shading, use small camel hair 
brush and India ink. 

Lights and Shades. In a sketch it is found that mere 
outline is insufficient to the representation of an object in relief ; 
it cannot give substance, nor define relative distances so as to 
maintain the objects in their proper places. The matter of fact 
representation of the breadth of a meridian light, and the same 
passage of landscape viewed under the shades of evening, affects 
the feeling very differently. In the latter, there is a charm which 
operates even upon minds least susceptible of impressions from 
the beauties of nature. The general principle acted upon by 



SKKTl IllNC FROM N'.VIL'RK. 



artists, is to dispose the lights and shades in the manner best 
suited to the treatment they propose lor their work. 

There are two extremes of Ihrht and shade, and between 
these lie all those half tints and reflected lights, and exquisite 
gradations of shade, which must be so carefully placed in the 
drawing as to clearly indicate the graceful curve of each individ- 
ual petal, without in any way destroying the roundness and 
breadth of a flower. The gradations of shade are sometimes 
perplexing to the learner ; but in this respect the eye is a very 
safe guide. It requires no cultivated taste not even any great 
amount of critical observation to see when an object which 
should look perfectly round, appears flattened on the one side, or 
swell too much on the other. The theory of foreground and 
middle distances and background, has much to do with the 
principles of light and shade. It is, not the lino of perspective 
alone which makes one portion of a picture retreat, and another 
come forward. 

In the drawing of a round object, apple or ball, the shades 
fall on the concave part, and incline toward 
the side opposite to light. All shades of ob- 
jects in the same picture must fall the same 
way, or farthest from the light. That part 
lying nearest to the light must receive the 
least shade. This rule will be noticed 
in the face, folds of the drapery, otc. 
Lamlseapes show the heaviest shades 
nearest us. the greater the distance the 
lighter grows the picture. In douds. the 
shades are the lightest that are ir.'atv-t 
the horizon, it being the great e.-t dis- 
tance from us, and 
those nearest the center 
of the picture the 
strongest. 





Colors are merely sensations produced by the action of light on the nervous 
tissue of the retina, which covers the back of the eye. 




[HERE ARE THREE PRIMARY COLORS IX NATURE, 

iBlue, Red, -and Yellow. From these are formed all 
[the other beautiful tints which well up from the 
bosom of the deep, glows in every flower, blossoms in 
the trees, and sparkles in the dew drop; softly 
stealing from the moon and stars, and written upon 
the blue arc of night, lied indicates anger, and 
sometimes guilt. Blue is said to be true, but denotes 
melancholy and gloom. Yellow indicates cautiousness and pru- 
dence, and reflects the most light of any, after white. 

Yellow-green is the color nature assumes at the falling of the 
leaf, and this was worn in the days of chivalry, the emblem of 
despair. Green denotes tranquility. In heraldry it is used to 
express liberty, love, youth and beauty, and at one time all let- 
ters of grace were signed with green. 

The color of all objects depend on the action of those bodies 
on the light which fall upon them, the different rays of which 
they reflect, either entirely, or only partially. The light of the 
sun, and the lights used for illumination, gas, etc., seem to con- 
sist of an infinite number of rays, of different color, and however 
widely they may be spread out by the prism in the spectrum, can 



2-1 COLORS IN NATURE. 

never be entirely separated, but always form an even gradation 
of color, from red at one end of the spectrum, through orange, 
yellow, green, etc., to purple at the other end. Sir Isaac Newton, 
divided the spectrum into seven parts, thinking he could distin- 
guish seven different colors, red, yellow, blue, orange, green, in- 
digo, and violet, which he called primary colors. Sir D. Brewster 
showed that those colors which Newton considered simple were, 
in reality, compound, and mixed up with a considerable propor- 
tion of white light. He concludes from his experiments that 
there were but three simple colors, red, yellow, and blue by the 
mixing of which the other colors were produced. 

The principal advantages attending the choice of red, blue, and 
yellow, as primary colors, are : That the choice seems to agree 
with the fact that whenever a ray of white light has one of these 
three colors removed by absorption, the remaining colors of the 
ray is that which would be found by an equal mixture of the 
other two colors. And when a ray has two of its primary colors 
removed, the remaining color of the ray is that of the third pri- 
mary color. The color which opposes the strongest contrast to 
any primary color, is that secondary color, which is formed of a 
mixture of the remaining two primaries, in such proportion as 
would form with the first white light. This color is called its 
complimentary color colors being called complimentary to each 
other when they together form white light. For instance, blue 
has for its complimentary color the neutral secondary orange, 
formed of a mixture of red and yellow, and this color gives the 
most vivid contrast that can be opposed to blue. Green is the 
complimentary, and strongest contrasting color to red, and red 
to green ; and yellow the strongest contrast, and complimentary 
to purple, and purple to yellow. 

When the colors of the spectrum in a circle, in a perfect gra- 
dation all around the circumference, and so that the three pri- 
maries, red, yellow and blue, are at points in the circumference 
equal distance from each other, the strongest contrast to any 
color will be found at a point on the other side of the circle dia/- 



COLORS IX NATURE. 25 

metrically opposite to it. Thus, blue will be found exactly 
opposite to orange, which will be intermediate between red and 
yellow ; and, in the same way, yellow-green will be found exactly 
opposite purple-red, etc. Xow, as red, blue and yellow are the 
three primaries, and that all other colors are composed of mix- 
tures of these, let us decide which of the many different colors 
called reds, yellows, and blues we are to consider as pure, and 
true primaries. A pure yellow has been decided upon ; chrome- 
yellow (Xo. l),chromate of zinc (citron yellow), or light cadmium. 
A mixture of any two bright primaries will produce a bright 
secondary, and any admixture of the third primary will make 
the secondary color produced much duller or blacker. We con- 
sider that would be the purest blue which gave the brightest 
green with yellow, at the same time that it gave the brightest 
purple with a red, and it was decided that cobalt blue was the 
pure primary, which was blue with regard to the yellow chosen. 
It i.s obvious that if the blue were a greenish blue, although it 
might give a very bright green with yellow, it would give but a 
dull purple with the red. The yellow contained in the blue, and 
which made it greenish, would blacken or dirty the purple pro- 
duced, but would not interfere Avith the brightness of the green. 
We choose carmine for the primary red as the color which gives 
the brightest purple with cobalt blue, at the same time that it 
gave the brightest orange with chrome yellow. Thus AVC have 
chrome (Xo. 1), for yellow, cobalt for blue, and madder carmine 
for red. These are the primaries. 

Colored objects appear colored owing to their action on light. 
This action consists in absorbing one or more of the different 
colored rays which fall upon it, and reflecting the rest ; and it is 
these reflected rays that give the color to the object. Bodies 
which emit light are called luminous, as the sun. Bodies which 
transmit light, and through which objects can be distinguished, 
are called transparent, as water, glass, etc. Bodies which trans- 
mit light, and not so as to permit objects to be seen through 
thcin ? are called translucent, as ground glass, etc. Bodies which 



26 COLORS IX NATURE. 

absorb or reflect all the rays of light, or transmit so few rays that 
the eye does not perceive them, are called opaque, as wood, 
metal, etc. 

What we call a pure white object, such as chalk or white 
paper, appears white by reflecting all the light which falls upon 
it, and is therefore precisely the same color as the light which 
falls upon it. A pure black object is one which alixorh* all the 
light which falls upon it, and reflects none. Such an object will 
always appear black, whatever may be the color of the light which 
falls upon it. Gray objects, (pale black), absorb the 1 three pri- 
mary rays equally, or in equivalent proportions, but not entirely, 
so that there is a certain portion of the white light reflected 
unchanged. A pure green absorbs all the red, and reflects all 
the yellow and blue. A pale but pure green absorbs only part of 
the red, and reflects the remainder of the red, together with all 
the yellow and blue. A dull and blackish green is formed by the 
absorption of all the red, and also part of the blue and yellow, 
and the reflection of the remainder of the blue and yellow. 
The same rule will apply in all cases of all other colored objects,, 
except transparent ones. Silks and satins of either color reflect 
light. 

When three colored rays are mixed together in neutralizing 
proportions, white light is produced. The easiest way of finding 
what are the equivalent proportions of tho primary colors is this : 
divide a circle of paper into three equal parts, by lines drawn 
from the center to the circumference. Paint one of these spaces 
with pure yellow, such as lemon yelloAV, or the palest chrome yel- 
low, and paint one of the remaining spaces pure but weak blue, 
with cobalt, and the other space pure but weak red, with madder 
carmine. Then try, by spinning the card rapidly on a pivot, 
whether these colors neutralize each other, and if not, darken 
that color that is deficient until the gray produced is neutral 
that is, of the color of lampblack mixed with white ; and when 
this is the case, the colors on the three spaces will be of the 
proper neutralizing strength for equal spaces, 




-8f PEN AND PENCIL DRAWIK5, 

> 



BY AID OF THE TRANSFER PROCESS. 

HE art of transferring pictures from one paper to another 
is Avhat few understand. Many have drawings or engrav- 
ings which they hold as valuable keepsakes, and wish to 
preserve copies. The plan of duplicating almost exactly 
a picture by the method given here, is original with the 
author of this book, who has many a time found it valuable in 
getting perfect the outlines of engravings, prints, and pictures of 
various kinds for pen or crayon drawings. Penmen produce very 
fine specimens of pen drawing, aided by the above process of 
copying ; and although many a novice in the art of pen drawing 
exhibits equally as good designs as older professionals, they are, 
nevertheless, borrowed. 

The paper used for transferring purposes is light tea paper, 
generally found in a tea store, or on sale at paper stores. 

"We Prepare it as follows : Procure a piece of soft pine or 
cedar, and burn to a coal , paste one side of the tea paper with it 
until quite black, and you have a neat transfer sheet. (In choos- 
ing the wood be sure and get soft white pine). Lay this black 
paper upon the white, where you wish the drawing to be made, 
the dark side down ; upon this lay the copy, face up, and fasten 
the whole to the table with thumb tacks, to prevent its moving 
around and changing the outlines. This done, go over the whole 
with a tracer made of wood or ivory, with sufficient pressure to 
carry the lines through to the paper underneath, following every 
outline of the picture until the whole has been gone over. Lift 
the tracing paper, and you have upon the sheet below the desired 



28 TRANSFERRING 

(lnuvin.tr, which YOU now <ro over \viLh pen or pencil. After this 
is done, rub the crayon from oil' the picture with your handker- 
chief, and complete the sh; din:,' \vilh :i fine pointed steel pen or 
pencil, keeping the copy before you. Use Spencerian Artistic 
Pen, Crow-quill, or Gillott's Xo. 170. 

THE USE OF THE PENTAGRAPH. 

THIS is an instrument in four sections, so arranged that you 
can enlarge or diminish in size, and copy a photograph, 
engraving, or any kind of picture. It contains a screw to fasten 
it to the table, a small steel needle to guide in the outlining, and 
a lead pencil to do the drawing. 

How to Use it. Screw the Pentagraph to the table, with 
the needle point to your left, upon the photograph, (which is 
fastened to the table also), holding the end containing the pen- 
cil with the fingers, to the right. With your eye on the photo, 
move the hand so that the needle follows the outlines of the copy, 
and the pencil is producing the same on your drawing paper at 
the right. In this way go over the entire picture until you have 
a complete copy of the same. You may now shade with pen or 
crayon to suit the wants of the copy. 

The small screws on the bars near the figures, are u'sed in ad- 
justing it to suit the size of picture required. 

COPYING WITH TRANSPARENT PAPER. 

IT NOTHER method of transferring pictures to paper is by the 
f\ use of a transparent paper, which is made by dissolving cas- 
* | tor oil in absolute alcohol, and applying the liquid to the 
paper with a brush or sponge. The paper becomes dry as 
soon as the alcohol evaporates, which is almost instantly. After 
which lay the paper on the picture you are about to copy, and 
with a pencil follow the outlines of the picture until you have 
gone over the whole. As soon as done immerse the paper in 
alcohol, which will remove the oil, and restore the paper to its 
natural state. 




PASTEL PAINTING, 




WITH SUGGESTIONS FROM THE BEST ENGLISH AUTHORS. 



" Exactly in proportion as an artist is certain of his end, will he be swift 
and simple in his means; and as he is accurate and deep In his knowledge, 
will he be precise and refined in his touch." Ruskin, 




PORTRAITS. 

the past few years a great improvement 
lias been made in the execution of portraits 
in black and colored crayons. Crayon paint- 
ing is much easier in its execution than oil 
painting, and pictures may be completed at 
one sitting, owing to the fact that dry colors 
are used instead of oil, which may easily be removed or changed 
at will, left and resumed again at any time desired. In this de- 
partment of art crayon takes the place of finish and paint, in all 
the different places where colors are used. 

Crayon painting is said to have been practiced for a century 
or more after it came into use, and during the past few years it 
has had a "big run" in this country. 

Crayons, or Pastels, can now be purchased by the box, in 
all varieties of tint, each box containing a graduated series. 

The Paper upon which the drawing or painting is made, is 
manufactured for this purpose in such a manner that the tex- 
ture becomes loosened and forms a woolly surface, which as- 
sists the blending of the tints, and receives the crayon. 

As soon as a crayon picture is completed it will necessarily 
have to go under glass, for so slightly tenacious is the crayon, ia 



30 PASTEL PAINTING. 

some placea where it may have been repeatedly applied with a 
view to brilliancy, that it niay.be blown from the surface of the 
paper. 

Exposure to the Sun, which may brighten pictures painted 
in oil, will in a short time destroy the delicacy of crayon colors. 
They must also be kept free from moisture or dampness, as it is 
sure to change the color and produce spots on the face of a por- 
trait, or the sky in a landscape. 

Colors. The colors employed in pastel painting are about 
the same as used in oil painting, with some exceptions. The 
best for crayon work are the following : 

Oxide of Zinc, White Chalk, Spanish White, Naples Yellow, 
Mineral Yellow, Chromes, Cadmium Yellow, Gallstone, Soft Red 
Chalk, Chinese Vermilion, Venetian Red, Chrome Red, Carmine, 
Lakes, Indigo, Prussian Blue, Smalt, Cobalt, Terre Verte, Cobalt 
Green, Brunswick Green, all the Greens from Copper, Green Ox- 
ide of Chromium, Lampblack, Umber, Ivory Black, Blue Black, 
Black Chalk. 

Color of Paper. In regard to the use of paper, any color 
may be used, it being wholly a matter of taste Avith the artist. 

The prevailing colors are Blue, Drab, Grey, Straw, Buff, 
Olive and Stone Colors. 

A yellowish tint, you will find, produces the best results. 

Mounting the Picture. Before commencing upon the 
drawing it must be mounted upon a stretcher, after which, with 
a firm crayon, trace the outlines, with either red, brown, or grey 
color. The beginner will find the Pentagraph of excellent ser- 
vice for outlining where you are working from a copy. 

Sketching in the Outlines. This must be done lightly, 
in order that the crayon does not enter into the texture of the 
paper, so as to render the marks difficult to be superseded subse- 
quently by the necessary colors. When the outline is completed, 
the breadths are made out by means of a brown crayon, and a 
stump, working for the degrees of shade. 



PASTEL PAINTING. 31 

Applying the Crayon. When the likeness is satisfactory 
in the sketch, the complexion may be commenced on, beginning 
with the lights. The whites, yellorWB, reds and greys must be 
worked in, and blended io an imitation of the reality of nature. 
From the highest lights, proceed in regular order to the deepest 
shades, and, in order to secure substance, these must be put in 
equal in strength to nature ; after which the middle tones must 
be carefully blended, so as to unite the lights and shades by im- 
perceptible gradations. The markings must be definitely made 
out, and the reflexes also, if there be any. As the fresher tints 
occur principally in the lights, it would be well to keep the color 
rather high, and of a warm tone, in order to reserve the bright- 
est and most effective tints till the last. 

When all the tints have been laid in, and the head is in a sat- 
isfactory state as to form, color and expression, then, with the 
finger, pass over the whole, working and blending the colors in 
harmony. In this operation the finger is used instead of a 
stump, and nothing else will answer better. When this opera- 
tion is concluded, the crayons will be again used to bring up the 
colors, and tone to those of the life to modify and correct those 
which may require retouching. 

Those parts Ayhich are heavy must be relieved, and those 
which may be too cold or too warm, must be reduced to har- 
mony. Working with the finger will be found the most avail- 
able method of managing the crayons. 

Having laid in the tints, according to the natural complexion, 
it will be necessary, before touching the work with the finger or 
blender, to be certain that all are laid in the proper places ; a 
little experience will enable you to judge ; there remains but lit- 
tle work for the fingers to perform, and the less the colors are 
worked upon the more fresh and transparent they will remain. 

Colors and the Composition of Tints. The shades of 
flesh tints are warm or cold, according to the warmth or cold- 
ness of the breadths of the light. If the lights be of a healthy 
hue, the shades may be warm, inclining to brown, mixed of va- 



3$ FASTEL PAINTING. 

rious colors, broken with light red, carmine, yellow, blue or grey. 
Some artists represent nature as violet or green, in shade ; but 
this is untrue and must be guarded against. It is advisable gen- 
erally to follow the Italian feeling of leaving the dark passages 
warm. When the complexion is strong in color, the effect is 
most agreeable ; if worked without hardness, opacity or black- 
ness. In feminine portraits the work must be brought up to the 
utmost brilliancy of color, by the brightest and freshest hues, 
composed of White, Naples Yellow, Vermilion and Madder, 
mellowed with Yellows, or slightly purpled with Lake or Car- 
mine, according to the prevalent tint of the subject. In the 
masculine subject the colors will be stronger, and the half-tints 
more positive. Great care must be observed, lest the high and 
delicate passages be soiled or stained. They must only be ap- 
proached by, and blended with, other shades at their extremi- 
ties ; and these shades are, in most cases, half tints. 

It will be clearly seen by the artist, that if the intermediate 
tint be too cold, it must be treated with the reds or yellow ; if 
too warm, reduce by grey or blue. The lights and shades should 
be carefully graduated, and harmony prevail throughout the 
work. 

Backgrounds. For backgrounds there is no established rule ; 
a head may be relieved by a light, or dark background, either 
producing good effect. A dark background is not always suit- 
able for female loveliness. 

Backgrounds are not to be nibbed in mechanically, with the 
idea that any dark shade will relieve any light, or that any mid- 
dle tint will suffice. As a general rule, the background around 
the head should be lower in tone than the half tints of the 
face, and lighter than the shades to disengage the head. 

Where the paper becomes greasy or glazed by the too frequent 
application of the pastel, or the finger, it may be necessary to 
rub it with pumice pounce, or with cuttle-fish, lightly. 

If the paper stretches by constant pressure on it, you can rem- 
edy it by wetting the back with a light solution of alum water. 



LANDSCAPE PAINTING 

WITH 

CRAYDN CDLDRS, 




*HE crayons used are much harder than the soft 
kind required in portraits; they are manufac- 
tured expressly for landscapes, and resemble firm 
chalk. The following is a list of the most use- 
ful crayons : White, Italian chalk ; straw colors 
and light yellow, hlue, grey, vermilion and In- 
dian reds ; blacks, conte crayons Nos. 1, 2 and 
3. The white Italian chalk is used both for 
light touches and blending all the other crayons 
into which it may be worked. 

The black conte chalks are also of the utmost importance ; 
Nos. 1 and 2, the harder degrees, are used for outlining, and the 
softest degree, No. 3, may be blended with many colors to re- 
duce their fbnes. 

The Paper. The paper must be a good quality of drawing 
paper, such as will take the crayon, and it must supply a good 
middle tint, as the color of the paper appears through almost 
every passage of the finished work. A soft paper of a low-toned 
olive tint, which has been found by long experience to be better 
adapted than any other for landscape drawing, as affording an 
agreeable neutral, upon which warm or cold tones, lights or 
shadows, may be placed with the best effect. 

Arranging the Paper. Attach the paper to a drawing- 
board with thumb tacks, in order that it may be kept smooth 
and level while the flat tints are rubbed in. It is well to select 
paper some larger than your design, so as to give the picture a 
margin. 



34 



LANDSCAPE PAINTING WITH CRAYON COLOES. 



The Drawing. "With conte crayon No. 1 the design must 
be outlined, showing enough of the objects to guide you in the 
fiat tints of the sky and distances. 

The difference in the crayons used in portrait and those in 
landscape painting is, that the latter is much harder, which is 
essential, as will be seen when applied to the paper. The breadths 
of the composition are not laid by working with the point of the 
crayon, but a part of the crayon, sufficient for the purpose re- 



quired, is 
brokenoff 
and ap- 
plied flat 
to the pa- 
per. Work 
it lightly 
over those 
parts of 
the draw 
ing that 
it is de- 
sired to 
tint, and 
the light- 




ness of 
the tint is 
derived 
from the 
hardness 
of the 
crayon, 
which is 
"bitten" 
by the 
surface of 
the paper, 
andleaves 
on it a 
quantity 



of the color. This tint is rubbed vigorously with the fingers, so 
as to work the colors well with the texture of the paper ; as the 
operation leaves but little color these tintings are repeated until 
the necessary strength of tone is obtained, varying and blending 
the colors by working them into each other from different direc- 
tions with the fingers, as the subject may require ; draw the re- 
mote forms with pieces of crayon, held flat or lengthwise. Blend 
the tints in and repeat where necessary. The distant ridges of 
the mountains being made out, the middle distance and the 
nearer objects are approached by the nearer tints ; still drawing 
with broken pieces of crayon, working obliquely or otherwise. 
The black conte Nos. 1 and 2, are used in the near parts of the 



LANDSCAPE PAINTING WITH CKAYON COVOES. 35 

picture; all the striking features of the foreground, such as 
trees, rocks and buildings, are drawn, and the material used in 
the manner described. When any fine lines are necessary, they 
are not made with the crayon cut to a point, but by the sharp 
edges of the fracture of the crayon. 

Using the Colors. Each object having been drawn in 
with the conte, it is now tinted or colored by working over the 
black markings with the necessary colors. It is like the opera- 
tion of glazing in oil painting, as under the light lines of the 
tracing of the colored crayon the conte drawing is still visible. 
By blending and again drawing with conte, and again glazing 
as often as may be necessary, we approach the finish of the pic- 
ture, which is completed by sharp touches of light put in with 
sharp points of the broken ends of colored crayon. The color 
should be used sparingly, and the black chalk should appear 
prominent in the drawing. Do not rub in the colors in finish- 
ing or you destroy the effect. The beauty of the work depends 
upon the paper being perceptible through the final finish. Any 
markings too sharp, may be worked down by the finger or blend- 
er. These retouchings are repeated until the desired effect be 
obtained. 

As crayon painting is liable to become changed or removed, 
even by blowing upon it, we must present some method whereby 
it can be fixed permanent. 

Fixing the Drawing. Infuse an ounce and a half of isin- 
glass in five ounces distilled vinegar twenty -four hours ; add to 
this one quart of hot water, keep at a light heat, stir often un- 
til the ism-glass is dissolved, when you filter it through paper ; 
pour it into a bottle with the same quantity spirits of wine, 
shake a few minutes and you have the fixatif ready. 

Place the picture face down (avoid having the colors touch 
anything), and apply the liquid to the back with a brush until it 
has penetrated through to the crayon and all the colors become 
moistened and bright. The first application will penetrate very 



36 MATERIALS FOR PASTEL DRAWING. 

quick. After this apply another with great care and evenness, 
and not so plentiful as at first. When done lay it with 
face up until dry. The picture is now completed. After this 
process of fixing the colors, they can be cleaned any time with- 
out injury to the painting. 




MATERIALS FOR PASTEL DRAWING. 




Crayons, square black conte, Nos. 1, 2, and 3. Square white, red, 
and grey, Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 
Bound black conte, Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 
Round white and red crayons. 
Conte crayon pencils in wood, Xos. 1, 2. and 3. 
Charcoal in sticks. 

Hard and soft pastel, containing 130 shades. 
Crayon holders. (Brass and German silver.) 

PREPARED PASTEL PAPER. 

Eoyal, super-royal, double elephant, colombier. 

STUMPS USED. 

Chamois skin, cork, paper, (grey). 




DIRECTIONS 



FOR DOING THE 



MONOCHROMATIC DRAWING. 




pasteboard or drawing paper, size with isin glass, or 
paint with pure white lead. When thoroughly dried, 
smooth it down with sand-paper, and paint again. Be- 
fore this coat is perfectly dry, sift upon it pulverized white 
marble, through muslin. "When dry, shake off the loose marble 
that remains. Monochromatic board can be found already pre- 
pared at the book stores, where artist materials are kept. The 
materials needed for this work, is a thin-blade knife, crayons, 
fine sponge, pencil, cork, rubber, blender, &c.. Commence paint- 
ing with the dark shades first, and blend gradually into the light. 
For very dark shades, rub the crayon directly upon the surface 
with a light hand, and blend off carefully. Paint the sky first, 
as in water colors. It is well to shade distant mountains very 
light at first, and be sure to have the edges soft and faint. For 
water, scrape some black crayon into a powder, and lay it on your 
board with the blender, working it horizontally, making the 
lights and ehades stronger as it comes nearer. Use the pen-knife 
for making sharp lights. Dark subjects work to the best advan- 
tage, such as moonlight scenes on the water, old ruins, etc. The 
foliage requires a great deal of attention in showing it up. Draw 
in the figures last. One familiar with crayon or pencil drawing 
can acquire this branch of art very easily. 



WATER COLORS. 




this branch of fine art we will avoid all prelimi- 
nary remarks in regard to its advantages, and di- 
rect you at once to the method of treating it, in 
as clear and comprehensible a manner as possible, 
and at the same time omit nothing that will in 
any way facilitate the progress of the learner. 

INSTRUCTIONS. 

Arrange the paper for the painting, after spong- 
ing it, by stretching upon a drawing board, and 
then turn to the mixing of the colors. 

Colors Used for Skies and Distances. 
FOR BLUE OF SKY. Cobalt Blue, lowered with 
Pink Madder and Gamboge, to the hue required. 
Ochre may be substituted for Gamboge. 

CLOUDS. The same mixed so as to form a va- 
riety of warm and cool pearly greys. 

FOE EXTREME DISTANCE. Cobalt and 
Venetian Red. 

FOR LOCAL TINTS. Blend the colors so 
that the tints produced may in- 
cline toward yellow, red, or any 
tint required. 

FOR MIDDLE 
TINTS, use Indi- 
go, Pink Madder 
and Ochre on the 
same principle for 




WATER COLORS. 39 

the light parts, and Indigo, Pink Madder and Gamboge for 
shady portions. 

SETTING SUN, Use Yellow Ochre and Pink Madder, or Vene- 
tian Bed and Yellow Ochre ; sometimes Vermilion and Gamboge 
or Indian Yellow in small proportions, when a strong effect is to 
be given. 

TREES. In painting trees use Indigo, Burnt Sienna and Gam- 
boge, These colors will make tints for the light ; Indigo mixed 
with Vandyke Brown becomes a fine deep grey, of a green hue. 
Purple Lake may be added when you want the tint more neutral. 

FOREGROUND. Green in foreground is made by mixing Sepia 
with Olive Green in the shade, and Olive Green and Burnt Sienna 
in the lighter parts. A light transparent yellow, raw Sienna or 
Italian Pink may be carried over the foreground where herbage 
is to be represented, when a bright sunny effect is desirable to 
give fullness and richness to the colors that come afterward ; it 
also answers for high lights upon leaves, and the brilliant specks 
which are left sharp. Indigo, Indian Bed and Ochre for the 
ashy grey of loam ; Burnt Umber alone, or mixed with Burnt 
Sienna, pure Ochre, and Ochre mixed with Sepia alone, and 
mixed with Purple Lake for dark parts ; also, Vandyke Brown 
and Purple Lake, or pure Brown Madder for very dark touches. 

Indigo, mixed with Gamboge, makes a cold green well suited 
to dark leaves ; Purple Lake may be added for cool reflected 
lights ; Indian Red mixed with Indigo to a pale tint for willow 
leaves or foliage stained with dirt, or for the grey back of a leaf. 

These cold greys and greens are of great value in foregrounds 
to repeat the cool greys and cold lights of the sky in pictures 
composed of much warm color in the middle distance, as mid- 
day effects, sunsets, etc. The foreground should show a great 
deal of relief, distinctness and accuracy in the drawing of these 
small objects which are particularly marked, but are merged in- 
to masses when further removed. With regard to roads in your 
painting, Yellow Ochre, mixed with Burnt Sienna, and lowered 
with Indian Red and Indigo. Indigo and Brown Madder being 



40 WATER COLORS. 

transparent colors, will allow a wash of Cobalt Blue and Pink 
Madder to alter the hue without danger of opacity. 

WATER. The same as for clouds, blended with the local color 
of the water (greenish) and with the reflected objects. 

DARK SEA is indicated by combining Indigo, Vandyke Brown 
and Lake. 

DARK SKY. Indigo, mixed with Pink Madder and Gamboge. 

IK BRICK WORK. Mix Ochre with French Blue and Indian 
Red, Indigo and Venetian Red, Ochre and Pink Madder for 
bright part of brick work. When the color is more of red, Ver- 
milion may be used, with caution, and in small quantities for 
lights. For shades, mix Sepia and Purple Lake, or Sepia and 
Indian Red ; Sepia alone is used for light shadows from trees. 

We will now paint a landscape, the foreground composed of 
rocks lying near and dividing a stream of water from a road ; 
the margin of the river skirted by trees ; beyond a range of hills, 
and still beyond another range of mountains with high points 
extending above all else ; cattle standing at the foot ; flock of 
sheep coming along the road, cottage, etc. 

Direction. Cover the entire surface of your board with a 
tint of Yellow Ochre of moderate strength ; when this is dry a 
tint is formed from the mixture of Cobalt Blue and Pink Mad- 
der, the blue predominating ; use it in a very diluted state, on 
the side whence the sun is supposed to shine, graduating the tint 
as the opposite part of the sky is approached, so that the ether 
may appear of a clear and rather strong color ; the lights of the 
cloud to be left, and care to be taken to diminish the strength 
of the tint in the lower part of the sky. The same tint may be 
carried over the mountains, leaving small, brilliant lights if there 
be any. 

A wash of Pink Madder and Ochre, or Venetian Red and Ochre 
may be given to the lights on the clouds, afterwards they may 
receive their middle tint, composed of Pink Madder, Yellow 
Qphre and Cobalt Blue, 



WATER COLORS. 41 

THE CLOUDS may be finished by shading with Cobalt Blue and 
Venetian Red ; the water should receive its tints at this ' time ; 
any very bright lights should be left. Clouds that are darker 
than the ether, lay on with Venetian Red and Ochre. If the 
clouds are meant to show lighter than the blue of the sky, they 
should be left. Mix in one dish Ochre and Pink Madder with 
more strength than the sky tints ; and in another Cobalt, Pink 
Madder and Gamboge, with as much strength as possible, so that 
it will work freely. Having the brush charged with the first 
paint, proceed to lay in the light parts of the mountains, varying 
the color by the addition of Cobalt Blue where a greenish line is 
wanted, Pink Madder where the granite prevails. Now, with a 
brush filled from the other saucer, lay in the shady parts, varying 
the colors. These opposite tints of light and shade should be 
made to blend imperceptibly where they meet. Indigo, Pink 
Madder and Gamboge, mixed, will be found useful for dark 
touches in shadows, and Cobalt mixed with Indian Red may be 
used for the same purpose in the lights. 

FOR THE HILLS, mix Indigo and Yellow Ochre, so as to make 
a light green ; lay in the light parts with this, adding Ochre 
when a brighter and warmer light is to be expressed, and Pink 
Madder when the surface is broken by rock. Any bright pro- 
jecting rocks may receive a touch of Yellow Ochre and Indian 
Red, mixed. A few broad touches will bring this sufficiently 
forward ; they may be given with a brown, produced by the 
mixture of Indigo, Purple Lake and Gamboge, inclining to Or- 
ange or Purple. 

THE TREES, skirting the stream, should be covered at the 
same time with the first and lightest tint, varied in the same 
Avay and brought into the water, leaving a sharp strip of light 
at the edge for a bank or path. Any very light stems of trees 
should be left. When this has become quite dry lay in the trees 
with Gamboge, Burnt Sienna and Indigo, mixed, for the light ; 
Purple Lake, mixed with Indigo and Gamboge, for stems; 
stronger and browner for dark touches. The rocky masses lying 



42 WATER COLORS. 

in the water near the promontory may be covered by a tint of 
Indigo and Brown Madder, mixed ; a little Olive Green will vary 
the tint, if a greenish hue is wanted. Gamboge, mixed with In- 
digo to a light green, and varied with Purple Lake and Indigo, 
will serve for the parts of the rising ground seen through the 
branches of the trees, which may receive a tint of Indigo mixed 
with Burnt Sienna and Olive Green. 

THE FOREGROUND may be laid in with Indian Red, mixed 
with Yellow Ochre, and broken by Sepia or Indigo; shadows 
across the road may be rendered by washes of Indigo mixed with 
Brown Madder, and Lampblack mixed with Purple Lake for 
cool slate colored rocks in shade. 

Birch trees should be covered with a tint of Indian Yellow 
and Burnt Sienna, and shaded with Brown Madder and Indigo 

* O 

mixed, or Sepia and Purple Lake. Bring out the stems by dark 
touches of Vandyke Brown mixed with Purple Lake, in shade. 
The dark greens about the foreground should be composed of 
Sepia and Indian Yellow. The figures in the landscape may 
have some red in the drapery ; the sheep, a little Yellow Ochre. 
In mixing the colors always incline towards warmth, because a 
little more coolness and atmosphere may be given by a wash of 
Cobalt Blue mixed with Pink Madder or Indian Red. Reflections 
in water should be painted similar in hue to the objects, but 
lower in tone and more transparent. Large stems of trees may 
be colored effectively by applying varied greys, browns (made 
by a mixture of Indian Red, French Blue and Ochre), for light 
sides, leaving any very bright features shown in the bark. Brown 
Madder and Brown Pink, and sometimes Vandyke Brown mixed 
with Indian Lake, will be found of service for markings. When 
laying on the blue in the sky, be careful to leave the shape of 
the light parts of the clouds, then with another brush wash in 
the middle tint and suffer it to blend with the blue on the shady 
side of the cloud. Add a little Venetian Red, as the tint is car- 
ried down to the horizon ; mix more Cobalt for distance. Give 
a first color to the road and cottage ; pure Yellow Ochre for the 



WATER COLORS. 43 

light of the plaster, with white paper left, and with very small 
portions ; the shade, Sepia or Brown Madder, mixed with Indigo ; 
the hedge by the cottage,' brown-pink, olive-green, mixed with 
Burnt Sienna. 

WHEN THE DRAWING is DRY, begin with the sky, and 
heighten or subdue as seems best ; give the shade to the clouds, 
taking care that the indications of shadow, and feature gener- 
ally, grow lighter the nearer they come to the horizon ; the coun- 
try is distinguished from the sky by outline a dark touch of 
blue in the shadows, from the clouds. Dark touches on the roof, 
chimneys and windows of the cottage, will give it relief from 
the sky, and give distance to the small objects ; they may be 
made with Vandyke Brown, mixed with Purple Lake. Brown- 
pink, mixed with Purple Lake, gives a very dark transparency to 
water. 

FOR MOONLIGHT SCENES, wash in the general effect of sky 
with Burnt Umber, mixed with Cobalt Blue and Pink Madder, 
and Cobalt Blue for dark clouds and distances ; Indigo, mixed 
with Vandyke Brown and Pink Madder, for the general land- 
scape. The learner, before commencing at once upon a land- 
scape, will do well to practice upon blending colors ; commenc- 
ing with Cobalt Blue and Pink Madder you will produce a pur- 
ple ; add Gamboge, the purple will be grey, etc. In the combi- 
nation of the following colors, a great variety of tones adapted 
to skies and distance may be found : Sepia and Gamboge, Sepia 
and Indian Yellow, Sepia and Italian Pink, Lampblack and In- 
dian Yellow. Chinese White is of service when tinted paper is 
used for sketches. 

IN SELECTING THE PAPER it should be as natural as pos- 
sible, either cool or warm in hue, according to the effect 
intended. The tint may serve as middle tint in light of build- 
ings, stems of trees, banks, etc. Cold pressed imperial paper is 
the best for landscape. There are several other kinds of paper 
which are used, such as Whatman's extra thick, of 140 Ibs. to 
the ream ; or Creswick paper, if white ; or pale cream color, are 



44 



WATER COLORS. 



good ; but if much opaque color is used in the picture, any com- 
mon paper will do, especially if of a warm grey or brownish 
color ; and very good pictures are painted on the ordinary brown 
paper used for wrapping. The most convenient form of paper 
for sketching in the outlines of a scene is that made up in 
blocks or tablets. 

BRUSHES should come to a fine point of their own accord, and 
not bulge out in the middle. Sables are the best for general use. 
The brushes necessary are two or three red Sable, or goose quill 
size, and a black Sable of large swan-quill size for flat washes ; 
or where these are too high price for the beginner, a large 
swan-quill French camel's hair with good points. Do not allow 
the color to dry on them, or they are spoiled ; but wash as soon 
as used and allow them to dry with the hair in its natural posi- 
tion. 

OTHER MATERIALS, such as a drawing-board, a sponge, an 
HH pencil for outlining, India-rubber, a sharp penknife for mix- 
ing up opaque colors with Chinese White, a tin water-bottle to 
hold water when sketching, prepared ox-gall to use in small 
quantities where the paper is greasy or woolly, a quill pen, will 
also be found useful. 

THE COLORS USED ARE Indigo, French 
Blue, Cobalt Blue, Purple Lake, Indian 
Red, Indian Lake, Pink Madder, 
Indian Yellow, Gamboge, Yellow 
Ochre, Vandyke Brown, Brown Mad- 
der, Sepia, Burnt Sienna, Venetian 
Red, Olive Green, Brown Pink, Ver- 
milion. One of the principal points 
in which water-color 
painting differs from 
oil, is the laying on 
of the flat tints by 
means of washes. 




THE ART DF 

LANDSCAPE PAINTING 



I N 



OIL COLORS. 

TECHNICAL NAMES AND MATERIALS USED. MIXING OF 
TINTS, AND HOW TO APPLY THEM. 




o doubt you are sufficiently acquainted with the gen- 
eral principles of Drawing and Perspective at the 
>time you reach this branch of art work, as to be able 
to apply them with facility and certainty to the rep- 
resentation, in outline, of a given view or subject. 
The rules here laid down will place within your reach the 
power of securing to yourself one of the most delightful and 
agreeable of accomplishments. 

In the production of a painting in Oil Colors, there are certain 
modes of operation, in introducing a beginner to the practice of 
the art, the operations are distinguished by the technical names 
of glazing, impasting, scrambling, and handling. 

A GLAZE is a thin transparent film of color, laid upon another 
color to modify the tone, or to aid the effect of the latter, the 
work thereby appearing distinctly through the layer of glaze, 
from which it receives a characteristic hue. This process of 
glazing is effected by diluting proper transparent color with 
megilp, or other suitable vehicle. Thus diluted, these colors are 



46 LANDSCAPE PAINTING IX OIL COLORS. 

laid upon portions of the work, either in broad flat tints, or in 
touches, partially and judiciously distributed. The object is to 
strengthen shadows, and give warmth or coldness to their Inn-, to 
subdue lights that are unduly obtrusive, or to give additional 
color and tone to those that are deficient in force and richness. 

IMPASTING. In oil painting, the dark shadows, or dark por- 
tions of the picture, are painted thinly, Arhile the lights arc hud 
on, or " impasted," with a full pencil and a stiff color. In the 
lights of the foreground, and of parts not intended to 1x3 remote 
or to "retire," the impasting should be bold and free ; while in 
the more brilliant lights it cannot well be too solid. The palette 
knife has always been a favorite instrument of this impasting," 
or laying on of color, capable as it is of producing an agreeable 
brightness on, and of giving an appropriate flatness to, the pig- 
ment. A clear and appropriate tint, skillfully swept across a sky 
by these means, often produce a brilliant and charming effect 
which is surprising. 

SCKUMBLING, the opposite process to that of glazing, is done 
by going lightly over the work with an opaque tint, generally 
produced by an admixture of white. For this purpose ;i hog- 
hair brush is used, charged with color but sparingly, and with it 
the tints are drawn very thinly, and somewhat loosely, over the 
previous painting, which should, as in the case of glazing, be dry 
and firm. 

The judicious combination of glazing and scrumbling will 
produce richness, brilliancy and transparency. 

HANDLING. By "handling" is meant the mechanical use of 
the pencil or brush, exhibiting the artist's power of adopting cer- 
tain modes and processes in the expression and representation of 
the different textures of objects, such as foliage, wood, water, etc. 

Light. The position of a painter at his easel should be such 
that his work may receive the light from his left, falling upon it 
only from the upper part of the window of his room, the lower 



LANDSCAPE PAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 



47 



part being darkened by a piece of green baize. A light proceed- 
ing from the north is the best, it being most uniform through 
the day. 

The first thing to be done in painting a landscape is to select 
a canvas of moderate size, let the design be drawn upon it with 
a firm and well defined outline. This being done, tint the lower 
part of the canvas in a clear, warm tone with a mixture of Yel- 




low Ochre and Venetian Red, or with a pale hue of Burnt Sienna, 
in water colors, mixed with a little ox-gall to make it adhere to 
the oil ground. 

The upper, or sky part of the canvas, being left clear, com- 
mence the work lightly about where the horizon will appear, and 
gradually strengthen the tint as you descend. The sketch being 
laid in, the painting of the picture may now be commenced. 



48 LAxnscAPh; PAINTINC IN mi, COLORS. 

Have near your easel a slab of ground glass, on which you can 
prepare your tints to a proper consistency or hue. A set of tints, 
of the hue of the sky, and for the distances, is now mixed, and 
you commence with the blue of the sky, working downwards, and 
securing a proper gradation of color ; then follow the distances, 
mountains, &c. This being done, the work is left to dry. The 
mode of applying the color to the canvas is chiefly by touches, or 
pats of the brush in succession, from left to right. The color 
should be tempered with a proper quantity of vehicle, that it may 
work crisply, and above all, that it may be laid sparingly upon 
the canvas. 

Short hair brushes are best adapted to painting with little 
color. In laying on, or "impasting" the lights, the brushes 
should be rather longer than those used for general painting 
such a brush will yield the color more readily. Unless the colors 
be allowed to harden between the first and second painting, also 
between the second and third, they will be liable to be rubbed 
off by the application of the oils and glazing used in the after 
painting. 

When the first painting is dry, the picture should have a damp 
cloth passed over its surface. Being then wiped dry, let it be 
rubbed over with a small portion of noppy oil, for this makes the 
after painting unite with the first. It is a mere moistening of 
the surface that is required no excess of oil to remain. All that 
is not necessary should be removed by the moderate application 
of a piece of silk or linen. 

In the second painting we advance by giving more attention 
to the details of various objects ; their drawing, light and shade, 
reflected hues, and various tints in coloring are more elaborately 
made out ; the relative distances of objects from the eye are most 
carefully preserved, and the shadows, which are yet painted 
thinly and transparently, are carefully united, with half -tints, so 
as to produce a roundness. 

The third, or finished painting, is commenced by wiping and 
oiling the picture in the manner before described as necessary 



LANDSCAPE PAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 49 

for tbe second painting. We then proceed to complete the de- 
tails of form and color, which Avere brought forward in the 
former painting, employing for this purpose delicate touches of 
glazing and scrambling alternately, not to conceal, b^^t improve 
and render as perfect as possible what has already been done. 
Sharp, vigorous touches where the markings of the details require 
them. These touches must be made with freedom and decision, 
or they fail in producing the desired effect. They should be of 
a warm tone, not cold not grey. In this stage of the work do 
not attempt too much at one sitting. It is best to allow the colors 
to dry gently, and to repeat the operation when necessary. 

Lastly, a mode of aiding the finish is by passing over a portion 
of the work with light, delicate tones, which are left only on the 
projecting touches of texture objects. 



MATERIALS USED. 

Many of the pigments which change color by the action of im- 
pure air, and are, therefore, useless in water-color painting, may, 
nevertheless, be safely used in oil painting ; for this reason : In 
water color the powder colors are mixed with only just enough of 
some binding cement (called a vehicle), such as gum, size, sugar, 
etc., to prevent their being easily rubbed off the paper, and are, 
therefore, freely exposed to the action of the atmosphere, or of 
the colors with which they may be mixed ; but in oil colors the 
powder colors are ground up in oil, so prepared as to oxidise 
rapidly in the air into a kind of impermeable leathery resin, 
which, completely enveloping each particle of color, effectiially 
protects it, not only from the action of impure air, but also of 
neighboring particles of different colors. And it thus happens 
that pigments may be used in oils with tolerable safety which in 
water color might turn black in a few days. Indeed, the white 
which we invariably use in oils flake white is certainly one of 
the most unstable of colors in water colors ; and nearly the same 



50 LANDSCAPE PAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 

may be said of the chrome yellow, Naples yellow, emerald green, 
etc. 
The colors named below will be found a useful set : 

Flake White, Lamp Black* Cobalt Blue, 

Ultramarine, Cappagh Brown, Madder Brown* 

Prussian Blue, Raw Sienna, Burnt Sienna, 

Yellow Ochre, Cadmium Yellow* Pale Cadmium Yellow* 

Carmine (in Powder)* Eose Madder* Indian Yellow* 

Indian Red, Emerald Green* 

The colors marked with an asterisk do not dry quickly, except 
when mixed with much flake-white. To these it is necessary to 
add a very little drier a mixture of sugar of lead and boiled 
oil. 

BRUSHES. After the colors, the brushes are the most impor- 
tant part of the artist's materials. Flat hog's-hair brushes are 
the most useful for general purposes. These should have pol- 
ished handles, and the hairs should not straggle at the point, 
but keep together, so as to form a straight, thin edge. The 
small sizes are most convenient when made very short and very 
thin in the hair, it being difficult to make the long-haired ones 
keep together at the point. For fine touches, sable brushes are 
the most convenient, some flat and some round ; the former 
thin and short-haired, the latter coming to a fine point. 

Badger's-hair softeners are used, as their name implies, to 
soften broad tints in skies, etc., but require the greatest caution 
in their use, or they will certainly produce a disagreeable " wool- 
liness," or smudginess. They are made with the hair radiating, 
or spreading out, towards the point, and are used by dabbing or 
jobbing them lightly over the work, and should always be used 
clean and dry. 

The brushes should always be cleaned as soon as they are done 
with for the day. The easiest way is to rinse them in a little 
spirits of turpentine, and, after drying them on a rag, wash 
them out clean by rubbing them in the palm of the hand with 
thick soap and water, and then rinsing them in clean water, and 
allowing them to dry with the hair in its proper position. It 



LANDSCAPE PAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 51 

happens sometimes that, leaving off in a hurry, one has no time 
to wash out the brushes carefully. In that case they may be 
laid by for a few days, dirty as they are, with their ends under 
water. The paint will keep under water Arithout drying. 

CANVAS. This is the best material for painting upon. It is 
sold ready stretched on frames, and is kept of all sizes at the art- 
ists' color warehouses. 

PREPARED PAPER is perhaps the most convenient material for 
the beginner, occupying so very little space when the picture is 
dry. It must be fastened, when in use, to a board by means of 
drawing-pins. It is also kept bound up into blocks, like those 
used for water-color sketching, and this is, perhaps, the most 
convenient form in which to buy it, though not the cheapest. 

MILLHOAIIDS seem to me to possess no advantage over paper, 
and are very heavy, and liable to break at the corners. 

PANELS are heavy and rather bulky, but are peculiarly well 
adapted for works requiring high finish. 

PALETTES are usually made of mahogany or satin wood. The 
latter are the best, the colors being better seen on the lighter col- 
ored wood. The rectangular shape is the most convenient, and 
packs best into the lid of a "color-box. A wooden palette should 
have plenty of raw linseed oil rubbed into it before being used, 
and be allowed to dry. This will prevent the colors sinking into 
the wood and staining. 

A DIPPER is a small tin cup made to fix by sliding on to the 
palette, to contain oil, turpentine, varnish, or any other vehicle 

used. 

THE REST STICK is used to rest the right hand upon, while 
painting those parts of the picture that require great steadiness 
and care. It should be as stiff and as light as possible, and is 
held in the same hand as the palette. 



52 LANDSCAPE PAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 

PALETTE-KNIVES arc necessary implements for mixing and 
manipulating the colors on the palette. It is convenient to have 
two of different stiffness. 

EASELS are inconvenient usually in proportion to their cheap- 
ness. They should be tolerably firm and heavy, and should 
allow the picture to be raised easily and quickly. 

VEHICLE is the diluent used to temper and thin the colors for 
the purpose of bringing them to a proper state. Linseed oil, 
rendered drying by boiling with certain metallic oxides, is the 
vehicle generally used. Drying oil should dry quite free from 
stickiness in two or three days, in ordinary weather. Copal var- 
nish is also an excellent vehicle, but dries so rapidly that it will 
not do where the colors require considerable manipulation with 
the brush as in skies and broad tints generally. Colors used 
with varnish will require frequent thinning with spirit of turpen^ 
tine. Megilp is a most pleasant vehicle to use ; so pleasant, in- 
deed, that one is apt to use far too much of it. It is made by 
mixing strong mastic varnish with drying oil. 

The beginner should bear in mind that all oils and varnishes 
have a strong tendency to turn dark brown with age, and should 
therefore learn to use as little as possible ; indeed, the colors, as 
generally sold, are ground with sufficient oil for use with a hog's- 
hair brush ; and it is only where greater freedom is required, 
and when using sable brushes, that an addition of vehicle is of 
use. It is absolutely necessary, however, in the process called 
"glazing," which is where a transparent color is rubbed thinly 
over parts of the picture, the general tone or color of which it is 
desirable to modify. And in this case, too, as little vehicle as 
possible should be employed. 



LANDSCAPE PAINTING IN OIL COLORS 53 

MIXED TINTS. 

The following are given as examples of some of the tints that 
may be obtained by mixture of the more important colors. 

Rose Madder and Cobalt, With these colors a variety of del- 
icate tints of great purity and permanence may be produced ; of 
general use in distances, skies, water, etc. 

Yellow Ochre, Rose Madder, and Cobalt. Being made up of 
the three primaries, are duller or greyer, but will produce a 
greater variety. Of use in distances, middle distance, etc. 

Vandyke Brown and Cobalt, Brown Madder and Cobalt. 
Of use in the same cases as the last. Good for middle distance 
foliage. 

Yellow Ochre and Orange Vermilion. Of great use in obtain- 
ing warm, sunny effects in distances, skies, clouds, and for bril- 
liant tints in foregrounds. Will give beautiful flesh tints with 
Chinese white. 

Yellow Ochre and Prussian Blue. Pleasant, cool, greyish- 
greens may be produced with these colors ; especially useful in 
middle distance trees. May be saddened with black or Vandyke 
brown 

Rose Madder and Prussian Blue. A variety of useful and 
permanent sober greys and purples may be thus obtained. Of 
great use in cloudy skies and distances, etc. 

Vandyke Brown and Prussian Blue. Useful in the same 
cases as yellow ochre and Prussian blue. 

Vandyke Brown and Yellow Ochre. Gives good tints for 
earth, etc., in foregrounds. 

Vandyke Brown and Gamboge, Vandyke Brown,, Gamboge, 
and Prussian Blue. Give colors of the greatest use for fore- 
ground and middle distance foliage. 

Burnt Sienna and Carmine, Gamboge and Burnt Sienna. 
Warm, rich, transparent colors. Of use in autumnal foliage, and 



54 I.AXDSCAI'i: TAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 

for bright tints in foregrounds, such as the shading of draperies, 
etc., and cattle, birds, and flowers ; in fact, in all cases where 
very rich transparent color is required. 

Burnt Sienna, Gamboge, and Prussian Blue. Of the greatest 
use for foreground and middle distance foliage. 

Burnt Sienna and Yellow Ochre. Useful for the same pur- 
poses as Vandyke brown and yellow ochre. 

fiaiv /Sienna, Carmine, and Prussian Slue. With these three 
colors an immense number of beautiful transparent greys and 
browns may be obtained, useful in all kinds of foreground 
shadows. 

Burnt Sienna and Cobalt. For distant and middle distant 
foliage. 

Carmine and Prussian Blue, Carmine and French Ultramarine. 
Whenever brilliant and transparent purples of great depth are 
required in foregrounds. 

Indian Red and Cobalt, Indian Red and Prussian Blue. Use- 
ful in the same cases as rose madder and Prussian blue. 

Raw Sienna, Madder Lake, and Cobalt. Give quiet, semi- 
transparent greys for middle distances, cloudy skies, etc. 

Carmine and Gamboge. For transparent deep oranges and 
reds in foregrounds. 

Emerald Green and Gamboge. May be sparingly used where 
very bright greens are required in foreground foliage. 

Orange Vermilion and Cadmium Yellow. Safe colors to use 
for all very vivid oranges. 

Lamp Black and Cobalt, Lamp Black and Gamboge. Illus- 
trate the use of lamp black in saddening other colors. The moat 
beautiful greys may be thus obtained. Of universal use, whether 
for foregrounds, distances, or skies. 



THE 

OIL-PHOTO MINIATURE 



CALLED BY SOMB 




2N the photograph you desire to color is mounted on 
a card, first immerse it in boiling hot water This 
will soften the paste, and in a short time the print 
may be lifted from the mount. Do not hurry, but give 
the print a thorough soaking before trying to lift it from 
the card, and always use great care to avoid tearing the 
photograph. Rinse the picture in cold water to clean it from 
the paste and coloring matter that may adhere to it from the 
card. Let it remain in the vessel of clear water until ready 
for mounting on the glass. Prepare a little thin starch paste, 
as follows. Amylum (Refined Corn Starch) a teaspoonful, cold 
water 2 ounces, or nitrate strontium -J ounce ; stir till dissolved* 
then bring it to a boil, stirring constantly. 

Have the starch paste thin and strain it through fine muslin. 
Having cleaned your Convex Glass thoroughly with alcohol and 
a piece of cotton batting, take the photograph and blot off the 
surplus water. Paste the face of the print and the concave or 
hollow side of the cleaned glass with your starch, being very 
careful to cover both the print and glass smoothly. A wide 
bristle brush is most suitable for this work. Lay the print on 
the glass, the prepared surfaces together, and proceed carefully 
to work the bubbles out with your fingers, after which lay two 



56 THE OIL-PHOTO MINIATURE. 

or three thicknesses of tissue paper on the print, and with an 
ivory paper-knife, or flat stick, with curve about the same as the 
concave surface of the glass, work the print down to the glass, 
forcing out all the air. Work from the centre of the glass 
toward the edges, and with great care, using very light pressure 
to avoid breaking the glass. The mounting of the print should 
be done quickly, as the paste dries very fast. If any bubbles 
should remain, prick them through with a fine-pointed needle 
and rub over with the ivory knife. After mounting the picture 
on the glass allow it to dry thoroughly. Now fill the concave 
or hollow side of the glass having the picture on, with Castor 
Oil three parts, Oil Lavender one part. Allow the oil to remain 
until the photograph is transparent ; this will take from three to 
twelve hours. When perfectly transparent, pour off the oil and 
wipe with a fine sponge until nearly dry. Your picture is now 
ready for painting. 

The colors applied directly to the photograph are those 
that need no blending such as the eyes, lips, jewelry, light rib-, 
bons, flower ornaments and neck-tie. Edges of ruffles and em- 
broidery should also be touched up on the photograph. When 
you have finished coloring the picture on the first glass, pour 
Glycerine over it, being careful to cover the surface thoroughly. 
Dram off and then put the other convex glass to the back of 
the one having the print, and wedge apart from it by attaching 
little pieces of card-board to the second glass with mucilage. 

Have the wedges very narrow and close to the edge. This 
separates the glasses and keeps the upper one from pressing the 
oiled and painted glass below. On this second glass you will 
color the face and other flesh, hair, drapery, and, if necessary, 
the background. The miniature, is finished by using card -board 
to back up the picture, white being very effective. 

Bind the edges of the glass and card-board together with 
strips of adhesive paper. 

CAUTION! Don't use Silver Gloss Starch; it will not do 
nearly as well as Corn Starch. 



THE OIL-PHOTO MINIATURE. 57 



The coloring of the eyes, lips, jewelry, ribbons, edges of em- 
broidery, lace, neck-tie, flowers, and other ornaments, is applied 
directly on the photograph after it is mounted on the glass and 
made translucent with the oil. 

EYES Use small brush. BLUE EYES Use Prussian Blue 
mixed with little Ivory Black. BROWN EYES Use Vandyke 
Brown. GREY OR HAZEL EYES Prussian Blue mixed with 
Vandyke Brown and Silver White. 

LIPS Use Rose Madder. 

JEWELRY Yellow Ochre for Gold, Silver White for Pearls, 
Emerald Green for Emeralds, Rose Madder for Rubies. 

RIBBONS Whatever color is required. Flowers and other 
ornaments the same. 

The color for Flesh, Hair, Drapery and Background is applied 
to the concave surface of the clear glass which is placed over 
the mounted print. 

FLESH Use Vermilion, Silver White and Chrome Yellow ; 
mix to suit. For children use Rose Madder or Carmine in place 
of Vermilion. For dark complexions dull the color by adding 
Vandyke Brown. 

HAIR For blonde hair, use half Naples Yellow and Vandyke 
Brown. For lights, use Naples Yellow. Brown Hair, Vandyke 
Brown. Black Hair, Ivory Black and Silver White, adding a 
little Prussian Blue. For Grey Hair, use Silver White, Naples 
Yellow, Black, Burnt Sienna, and a little Prussian Blue. 

DRAPERY Whatever color suits. 

BACKGROUND Your own judgment will suggest the proper 
color to use. 

If you want to change the work in any way, take a small 
piece of cloth, dipped in turpentine, and remove the color. 

For home work and adornment it offers special attractions. 
The photographs of relatives and friends can be made into 



58 THE OIL-PHOTO MINIATURE. 

Oil-Photo Miniatures, done by your own hands, and handsomely 
furnished for the mantel and wall at small expense. 

We have given you the simplest and best process for making 
the picture. It is claimed by some that when the oil is used it 
dries out after a time, and produces opaque spots. Should this 
trouble appear, it is easily overcome by using glycerine as previ- 
ously directed. "We herewith give you another method in use, 
and you can adopt whichever you see fit. 



SECOND METHOD. 

IVORY-TYPE OR MEZZOTINT. 

FOB MOUNTING THE PHOTOGRAPH. Isin-glass (fish glue) made 
in the following proportion : One teaspoonf ul to half cup of 
water, dissolved by boiling ; strain through fine muslin, and apply 
the same as starch. Pure Albumen, or white of egg, brushed 
over the glass and surface of the photograph, is used with great 
success by some. Equal parts Canada balsam and turpentine is 
also used for attaching the print to the glass. Kubber varnish, 
made with pure rubber, dissolved in benzole. Some add a little 
Cooper's glue to the starch when making it. Dextrine is a 
favorite with many. 

After the use of the castor oil, castor oil and glycerine, poppy 
oil, nut, or any of the oils, the print may be covered with a coat- 
ing of Damar varnish, which it is claimed holds the oil and 
preserves the transparency. Many artists after oiling or var- 
nishing, use water colors mixed with ox-gall in coloring on the 
back of the print, then follow with the oil colors as directed. In 
adopting any of the methods herein noted, your judgment will 
dictate care in observing the results, and suggesting changes that 
may facilitate the work, and success of the picture. You will 
find this art very attractive, simple, and productive of both 
pleasure and profit. Ladies are occupying leisure hours, and 



THE OIL PHOTO MiNIATUKE. 59 

making home attractive with their artistic work in producing 
the Miniature. 

By the first process pictures have stood for years without 
spotting or cracking. 

ANOTHER PLAN is : After cleaning the photograph, blot off 
the surplus water and place it in alcohol, let it remain until 
transparent. Old, faded pictures can be brought out clear in 
this way. After placing it on glass, cover the print with 
"paraffine," and let it lie for a short time in the sun, until crys- 
talized, when it is ready to receive the colors. You may use 
water colors on the first glass with good effect. 

' By this simple process any person unaccustomed to painting, 
and ignorant of art, may color photographs, and produce with 
rapidity and little trouble, effective, permanent, and beautiful 
pictures, so soft and delicate as to closely resemble painting on 
enamel ; may render the treasured family portrait doubly valua- 
ble by adding the warm tints of life to the faithful but cold and 
deathlike production of the photographer, and produce a pleasing 
as well as a truthful representation. The largest and the smallest 
work may be painted with equal facility, the life-size portrait or 
a miniature for a locket, the only qualification for success, even 
in very elaborate pictures, being taste in the arrangement of the 
colors. An objection to coloring photographs, as coloring has 
hitherto been practiced that the delicate truthfulness of nature's 
drawing was injured, and sometimes a likeness wholly destroyed, 
through being obscured by the colorist in the working, that the 
only guarantee of fidelity was the talent of the artist in the 
beautifully simple process under consideration with which all 
the softness, lights, and shadows of the photographs are pre- 
served." 




TZHZIE 



OIF 1 



f COLORING PHOTOGRAPHS 




ELECT a well-defined Photograph, one of light color 
is preferable, and the background free from spots ; 
it is also well to have a duplicate copy to refer to 
in case of necessity a copy of two different sit- 
tings. Always select a good subject, as a good 
portrait depends much on a good model. In sit- 
ting for a photograph, take your own natural and 
easy position several feet in front of the back- 
ground, with your eyes a trifle above the camera. 
Avoid all superfluous surroundings, such as fancy 
chairs, table covered with books and other objects, 
making your face a secondary affair in the picture. 

Preparing the Photograph. Take a piece of White Glue 
about the size of a hickory nut, and about one-half the quantity 
of pulverized alum ; dissolve in half a wine-glass of warm water 
and it is ready for use. Apply the mixture with a flat camel- 
hair brush to the photograph ; cover the entire face of the pic- 
ture, care being taken not to get it too wet. When dry, wash it 
in clean cold water with a sponge to remove any superfluous 
matter that may rest upon it. It may be necessary to go over 



COLORING PHOTOGRAPHS. 61 

it a second time, as it is essential that the paper be well har- 
dened to work upon. You may test, it by applying a drop of the 
color to one corner and if it washes off and leaves no stain the 
paper is in good condition for the work. Albumen paper can 
often be worked without using this preparation, but should be 
sponged off with cold water. 

The colors used are in cakes : Dry Carmine, Rose Madder, 
Crimson Lake, Venetian Red, Indian Red, Vermilion, Chrome 
Yellow, Indian Yellow, Roman Ochre, Gamboge, Cobalt, French 
Blue, Emerald Green, Indigo, Prussian Blue, Burnt Sienna, 
Burnt Umber, Sepia (Brown), Vandyke Brown, Madder Brown, 
Ivory Black, Chinese White, Constant White. 

Burnt Umber, mostly used for the hair ; Vandyke Brown is 
one of the most used of browns, although Sepia may be said to 
be the most useful in black silk and satin, when mixed with 
Lake, Indigo and Gamboge; Sepia and Lake for the eyebrows 
and hair ; Sepia and Indigo form a gray, very nice for back- 
ground. Of Red, Carmine is the most brilliant ; Rose Madder 
the most useful in flesh, especially in youths ; in elder persons 
add Vermilion; Crimson Lake is very useful for flesh tints; 
Light Red, Venetian and Indian Red can be used for nearly the 
same purpose. 

Coloring. Commence upon the face with the flesh tints, 
using for this a good size Sable brush ; go over the entire face 
and wait till dry. Use for the lips a little Vermilion and Lake. 
Now go over the background, and then the draperies. Deepen 
the Carnations, touching the eye and mouth with Lake; also 
the hair with the proper color. Touch the under lip with Rose 
Madder enough so as it may look natural. The white of the 
eye in youth is nearly blue, in old age it becomes yellow, in mid- 
dle age it is white. Yon must vary your tints to correspond. 

The iris must bo laid in with transparent color, then shaded, 
then finished with Chinese White. The pupil is touched with a 
dark color and the speck of white laid on last. Use the same 
color for black or brown as used for the hair, viz. : Light Red 



(52 COLORING PHOTOGRAPHS. 

and Chinese White, and neutral or Purple tint and White for 
the latter. The face is now nearly finished ; it only remains to 
add a few touches to the eyes and mouth, and impart life and 
expression to the countenance. If the person be dark, use Se- 
pia and Purple Lake, equal proportions ; but if fair, dispense 
with most of the Sepia. Next complete the background, after 
which finish up the hair over the background; after the last 
shaded parts of the hair lay on the high lights. Burnt Umber 
is most useful in brown and auburn hair ; Indigo, Sepia and Lake, 
or Lake, Indigo and Gamboge, are the colors used for high 
lights, the lights inclining to a purple tint, the blue pre- 
dominating. Keep the hair in masses; a good sized brush 
is needed. In painting cloth fabrics it will be well to use 
the local color at first very light, much more so than you 
desire it to be when finished. A black coat : begin by laying in 
a weak local wash as directed, and when it is dry go over the 
folds with a thin shadow color, which will prevent them being 
obscured by the next local wash. Having repeated this two or 
three times, you will find the garment to be as dark as necessary, 
but the shadows will be feeble ; you may strengthen them with 
Sepia and Lake. A good black for gentlemen's drapery is made 
of Indigo, Lake and Gamboge. When a blue-black is required, 
first make a purple-blue and then add the Gamboge till the tint 
is changed into black. In shadowing, always carry your pencil 
the way the folds run, instead of across them. The colors for 
backgrounds for fair people are blue, purple and greys. Dark 
complexions should have dark background. Stone is represented 
by a tint formed of Carmine, Indigo and Yellow Ochre, and the 
more distant you wish it to appear the more must the Indigo 
prevail. A background made of Cobalt, Burnt Sienna and a 
little Rose Madder works well. Madder Brown and Cobalt an- 
swers for the same. A purple cloudy ground is made of Indigo 
and liquid Carmine or Lake. An opaque ground, of a choco- 
late color, is composed of Lampblack and India Red. 

Paint curtains over the background and put on the lights with 
body colors. 



RUSSIAN, 



OR 



EGYPTIAN METHOD 




OF COLORING PHOTOGRAPHS 

WITH TRANSPARENT INDELIBLE CDLDRS, 

THIS is the "biggest little thing" in painting that probably has 
ever been presented to amateur artists. For beauty of ar- 
rangement, ease and simplicity in its execution, no branch 
of art work of a similar nature has ever met with like suc- 
cess. With a fair idea of colors and their application, you may 
increase the beauty and enhance the value ten fold of any ordi- 
nary photograph, by following these instructions. To produce a 
first-class picture, you must necessarily have a good subject to 
work on. A photograph that will take a variety of colors, is best 
adapted for a showy picture. 

Before applying the colors to a burnished or finished photo- 
graph, soften or cleanse the surface with the tongue until the 
saliva wets the picture evenly, without crawling ; oxide gall is 
good, but saliva is the best for this purpose. 

For a palette on which to mix or dilute colors, the bottom of a 
plate or saucer will answer. Always have a piece of blotting 
paper at hand to take up or remove superfluous paint from the 
picture, and use it after each application of color to the photograph. 

It is not necessary to mix paints on a palette, washing one color 
over another will produce better results. A tint is a color ab- 
sorbed in the picture, and washing or wetting will not remove it. 
A surface color remains on top, and water will remove it. You 
can use colors stronger over the shadows. Use just what liquid 



64 RUSSIAN, OR EGYPTIAN METHOD. 

you will find on the cork of the bottle, added to about one tea- 
spoonful of water, for flesh ; for draperies you can use it stronger, 
or as you desire. 

The liquid colors are mostly used, and consist of twelve one 
ounce bottles, and are very powerful. Therefore, make your ap- 
plication very weak, a mere tint only is required. Repeat the 
washing or tinting until the desired shade is produced. The 
colors used are as follows: Black, Red, Blue, Green, Car- 
mine, Gold, Brown, Violet, Orange, Purple and Lemon, all of 
which are transparent, soluble in water, and used as tinting col- 
ors. White is a surface color, and opaque. 

For Flesh Use first a weak wash or tint of gold ; over this a 
tint of red, a little stronger for the lips. 

White This is always used last for high lights ; you can make 
the white any tint by use of other colors. 

Black Can be used for a natural tint if toned down ; val- 
uable for all kinds of shading. 

Red Takes readily, and produces all tints from rose to scarlet ; 
used in flesh. 

Carmine A delicate pink to magenta. 

Gold Takes readily ; is a substitute for yellow ; used for jewelry, 
flesh, blonde hair, etc. ; use weak, and wash over with red for 
deeper results. 

Brown Takes readily ; darkened by tinting over with violet or 
black. 

Violet Takes on touch, and is very powerful ; first application 
very weak to insure even coloring ; it makes all tints from lilac 
to purple, etc. 

Blue Takes slowly ; repeat the washing for deep results. 

Greu Takes easily, lighten by washing over with gold ; darken 
with the blue ; always let your first wash or tint be very weak ; 
increase as desired by repeating. 

The colors in moist cake form are often used, but the liquids 
are preferable. Sable brushes, about Nos. 3, 8 and 12, are suffi- 
cient for ordinary purposes. 



HOW TO MAKE PHOTOGRAPHS 

BY THE 

GELATINE DRY-PLATE PROCESS 




(HE latest and meet zir^id advance in 
the art is due to the discovery of the 
sensitiveness of a gelatine film. This 
knowledge has been practically ap- 
plied in the introduction of plate* 
prepared with such a coating ; they 
are called "dry plates," to distin- 
guish them from plates which must 
pass through the silver bath, and bo 
used while wet. The gelatine-bro- 
mide dry plates are now in genera! 
use for taking pictures of out-door 
scenes, landscapes, houses, groups of 
people, etc. To make photographs, 
First Procure an Outfit from a dealer in photograph re- 
quisites, costing from ten to twenty-five dollars, consisting of 
a view camera, for making 4x5 or 5x8 inch pictures. This 
camera is so constructed as to make either a pic hire on the full 
gize of the plate (5x8 inches), or by substituting the extra front 
(supplied with the outfit), and using the pair of lenses of shorter 
focus, it is admirably adapted for taking stereoscopic negatives. 
Also, by the same arrangements, two small pictures, of dissimilar 
objects, can be made on the same plate. Included in the outfit, 
are also one patent double dry-plate holder, one large achromatic 
nickel plated lens, one pair "Waterbury" achromatic matched 
stereoscopic lens, one Taylor folding tripod, one carrying case. 

Filling the Plate Holder. If this is done in the daytime, 
a closet or room is selected, and all white light excluded from it. 



66 HOW TO MAKE PHOTOGRAPHS. 

It is difficult to make this exclusion absolute. One ray of white 
light will spoil a sensitive plate, and therefore the evening is gen- 
erally chosen to develop negatives, and for illumination, the light 
from a ruby lantern is employed. 

Gelatine Plates are glass, with one side coated with gela- 
tine, containing a haloid salt. Place one of them in a dry- 
plate holder, with the sensitive (or the coated) side facing out- 
ward. Handle the plates by the edge, between the thumb and 
fore finger, without touching the sides. After putting into the 
holders as many plates as are needed for the day's work, pack the 
outfit so that it can be carried about. 

Taking the Picture. For field service a camera, a number 
of plate holders, filled with sensitive plates, a lens, tripod, carry- 
ing case, and focussing cloth are needed. When these have been 
taken to the place which you want to photograph, fasten the 
camera on the tripod, throw the focussing cloth over your head, 
gather it under your chin, draw out the back of the camera, 
thus extending the bellows, and continue the movement until 
the image on the ground glass appears distinct, then fasten the 
back of the camera. This is called " focussing." At the first 
glance, an inexperienced person sees no reflection on the ground 
glass, but the eye soon becomes practiced to perceiving the in- 
verted image there. Substitute a plate holder for the ground 
glass, see that the cap is on the lens, pull the slide out of the 
holder, place it on the top of the camera, or in a convenient 
place. If everything is now in readiness, and the time for ex- 
posing the sensitive plate determined, uncap the lens, re-capping 
it at the end of the allotted time, and replacing the slide in the 
holder. After you have picture impressions on each sensitive 
film, pack your outfit and return home. 

Making Negatives . Amateurs may content themselves with 
making the exposures, and sending their plates in a light, tight, 
negative box, to some photographer, who will produce the finished 
picture, and mount them on cards. It is not necessary that this 



HOW TO MAKE PHOTOGRAPHS. 67 

should be done at once, months may elapse, and these dry plates 
be carried hundreds of miles. 

The chemical outfit for making negatives comprises the fol- 
lowing items : Two vulcanite trays, a glass graduate, a set of 
small scales, and weights for weighing chemicals, a ruby lantern, 
a bottle of varnish, a package of dry plates and of chemicals, a 
small quantity of bromide of ammonium, neutral oxalate of pot- 
ash, protosulphate of iron, hyposulphite of soda, alum, and sul- 
phuric acid. These chemicals are not dangerous, neither will 
they injure any one who handles them, and they do not emit 
offensive odors. Silver stains, and the disagreeable smell of col- 
lodion belong to the old or "wet" process. 

At a convenient time take the plate holder into the dark room, 
ilium mate it with ruby light, take the sensitive plates out of the 
holders, being careful not to touch their surfaces. Hold them 
by the edge. Place one of the sensitive plates, film side up, in a 
tray partly filled with water. While it remains there, mix this 
solution : Neutral oxalate of potash, 5 ounces ; bromide of pot- 
assium, 20 grains ; water, 20 ounces. If the solution does not 
turn blue litmus paper red, add a few drops of oxalic acid, 
enough to make it do so. A graduated glass is used to measure 
out the liquids. After rinsing the glass out, mix a second solu- 
tion made as follows : Protosulphate of iron, 5 ounces ; water, 
20 ounces; and acidulate it with 20 drops of sulphuric acid_ 
Both of these solutions keep well. Now combine a quarter of 
an ounce of the latter solution with two ounces of the former 
and mix them well. Pour off the water in the tray containing 
the gelatine plates. Be certain not to touch the sensitive side of 
the plate. Flow the combined developing solution over the plate 
and displace, by a touch of your finger, any air bubbles that 
may form. After a short time traces of the image on the sensi- 
tive film will appear. If they do not, pour the developing solu- 
tion back into the tray and add a quarter of an ounce more of 
the iron solution. Pour the strengthened solution over the plate 
and look at it intently. In a short time the details of the pic- 



68 HOW TO MAKE PHOTOGRAPHS. 

ture may be dimly seen. Wait patiently till the milky white ap- 
pearance is changed to a grey color, and then pour off the de- 
veloper into a developing bottle, if you have one. Wash the 
plate in two changes of water. In the unused tray mix a solu- 
tion composed of 4 ounces of hyposulphite of soda and 20 
ounces of water. (Label this tray " Hypo.," and do not use it 
for any other purpose.) A plate lifter is a convenient device for 
taking plates out of the solutions or baths. Change the plate to 
the hypo, tray, and let it remain there until every vestige of the 
milky white appearance has vanished, even from the under sur- 
face of the plate. The plate can now be examined by white 
light, which has no effect upon it at this stage. Wash it thor- 
oughly. A negative washing box will be found to be of great 
assistance. If this washing of the plate is not done thoroughly, 
the hyposulphite of soda crystals will adhere to the plate and 
mar the picture. Meanwhile rinse out the tray first in use and 
partially fill it with a solution consisting of 20 ounces of water 
and all the alum it will hold in solution. Allow the plate to re- 
main in the alum bath five minutes. Cleanse your hands from 
any adhering soda solution. Again wash the plate, and set it on 
edge to dry in a negative rack. 

All the preceding instructions can be briefly summarized. 

1. Put some sensitive plates into dry plate holders. 

2. Make the exposure. 

3. After taking a plate out of the holder, place it in a tray 
filled with water. 

4. Drain off the water and put the plate in the mixed devel- 
oping solution. 

5. Wash the plate and place it in the soda solution. 

6. Wash the plate and give it an alum bath. 

7. Wash the plate and set it in the rack to dry. When per- 
fectly dry, coat the plate over with negative varnish, and have 
that coating dry and hard. Now it may be touched by the fingers. 

Making Prints from Negatives. At this point the work 
ceases to be one of faith, as the results are now to appear. An 



HOW TO MAKE PHOTQGKAPHS. 69 

outfit of printing requisites comprises a printing frame, a porce- 
lain pan, a vulcanite tray, some ready sensitized paper, a bottle 
of French azotate, a bottle of chloride of gold, a glass graduate, 
some hyposulphite of soda, a glass form, a Robinson trimmer, some 
sheets of fine card-board, a jar of parlor paste, and a bristle brush. 

Sensitized Paper Prints. In the morning prepare a ton- 
ing bath sufficient for the prints to be toned that day. Put 7 
grains of chloride of gold into 7 ounces of water. Label the 
bottle " Chloride of Gold Solution." Take 1 ounce of French 
azotate, 1^ ounces of the chloride of gold solution, and add 6 
ounces of water, and you have a toning bath which keeps welL 
Where the prints do not give the required tone, the bath must 
be strengthened by adding to it some new solution. Place the 
glossy side of a sheet of sensitized paper upon the film side of 
the negative in the printing frame. Do this in a very dim light. 

The printing has gone far enough when the print looks a little 
darker than you wish the finished picture to appear. Make as 
many prints from the negative as you desire. Wash the prints 
in several changes of water. Take seven ounces of the toning 
solution and change the prints to the pan containing it, where 
the prints should be turned over and over to make the toning 
even. The toning process should go on until the dark part of 
the pictures have a very faint purplish tint and the white por- 
tion is clear. Wash the picture, but preserve the toning solution. 
The pictures should now be left for twenty minutes in a solution 
composed of 4 ounces of hyposulphite of soda, 1 ounce of com- 
mon salt, \ ounce of washing soda, and 32 ounces of water. 
This solution should also be prepared a day or two in advance. 
Give the pictures a final and effectual washing. After they are 
dried, lay them out one by one and, using the Robinson trimmer, 
cut them to the desired size. Now spread over the back of each 
in turn some parlor paste, and lay them down with the center on 
the sheets of card-board. This operation is called " Mounting 
Pictures." Press with a paper cutter upon the pictures and 
toward their edges until you are satisfied that they will lay flat, 



DRAUGHTSMEN'S SENSITIVE PAPER,? 



FOE COPYING DRAWINGS. 




PROCURE a printing frame, such as photographers use ; 
lay the tracing, face down, upon the glass, upon 
which place the sensitive paper, prepared side down, 
then several thicknesses of cotton flannel for a pad 
to equalize the pressure, and cause the sensitive paper and tracing 
to lay in close contact, and then close in the back. If, on turn- 
ing the frame over, any wrinkles appear, that side of the hinged 
back may be opened and a piece of paper laid in just above the 
spot, when all will come smooth on closing the frame, (this 
should be done in a dimly lighted room), then expose to direct 
sunlight, care being taken that the whole frame comes under the 
light, without shadows ; let the exposure be from five to ten 
minutes, according to the brightness of the day. Remove again 
to darkened room, examine by opening one of the hinged backs ; 
if the lines have slightly turned in color, it has been highly ex- 
posed ; it can be removed and washed in clear water, with two 
or three changes, then hang up to dry. You will have an exact 
copy of the original, with white lines on a blue ground, at a cost 
of about one tenth that of tracing, with absolutely no error, 
paper must be kept in perfect darkness until used. 




E term wood painting has, through the 
numerous designs invented for the pur- 
pose, found such a widespread use that 
it would be wasted pains to attempt to 
substitute a more fitting one. Not every- 
thing that is painted upon wood, falls 
under the knowledge of wood painting. 
No one would think of counting an oil 
painting, executed upon wood, under the category 
of wood painting. But if the colors were the dis* 
tinguishing sign, then wood and water color 
painting would fall together, or wood painting 
could be only an aquarelle painting applied upon 
1-wood. Wood painting permits itself to be thus 
denned, inasmuch as the character of the material 
and the choice of its objects differ, so wood water- 
color painting differs from the actual water color. 
While it is possible for the water-color artist to produce upon 
paper the softest tones and most brilliant phenomena of nature, 
so that the painting inspires the observer through its life-like 
freshness ; if the same picture, by the same artist's hand, were re- 



72 WOOD PAINTING. 

produced in exactly theisame manner upon wood, it would appear 
ravr and unfinished, yes, even wholly incorrect. 

The prepared wood takes the softest tint, as well as paper, but 
the texture of the wood shimmers through the transparent tones, 
and though the fibres and pores of the same have taken another 
hue, they still act as wood, and thereby destroy the effect which 
the artist intended. For it is originally the task of the artist to 
thus deceive the human sense of vision in such a manner, and so 
faithfully imitate the appearance of things in nature that the 
Observer must believe himself transported in the midst of reality 
and actual life, through the activity of fancy; in short, the 
artist must reproduce true to nature, and his pictures have the 
effect of nature. 

If one was to try with exclusive body colors which do not 
allow the grain of the wood to penetrate, to attain this ideal of 
painting, and attempt to create upon wood an actual life-like pic- 
ture, we would not conceive such an aquarelle, that never can 
compare with a picture upon paper in softness, just as little as an 
oil painting upon wood, as wood painting in the general sense. 

Therefore, neither the material to be painted nor the colors 
applied are the criterion of distinguishing reasons for wood paint- 
ing on one hand, and the oil or nearer related aquarelle painting 
on the other. 

The difference in a measure lies herein, that the characteristic 
peculiarity of wood does not subdue, but is drawn upon for the 
effect of the painting, partly in the nature of that which paint- 
ing upon wood represents or should represent. 

Wood painting, as far as we have touched upon it, cannot and 
does not intend to create natural pictures ; it only serves to orna- 
ment objects in wood, which through colored and tasteful designs 
are to produce an agreeable charm to the eye. It is not an 
object in itself, like a painting, the frame of which serves as a 
folio, but an external addition, like the ornaments of buildings, 
to make an otherwise monotonous surface interesting. 

Wooden articles admit of being ornamented in various ways, 



WOOD PAINTING. 73 

through sculpture work, by inlaying of colored woods and metal, 
and by painting. 

The choice of ornamenting is naturally dependent upon the 
purpose the object to be decorated is intended for ; a table, which 
must naturally have a smooth surface, we would not think of 
making useless by carving the top. 

Wood painting, as it is now en vogue, is of a recent date, and 
originally sprang out of the idea to imitate the mosaic work of 
art cabinet-makers. 

It may, with consideration for the purpose of the objects to 
be ornamented, also imitate carving, but must not go beyond the 
wood tones and the production of the effects of light ; it may 
even attempt to imitate enamel work by the application of strong, 
bright colors ; but it ought at the same time be in keeping with 
the purpose the object in hand is intended for, and never involve 
itself in contradictions. 

Its refined field should always remain the imitative, and should 
therefore confine itself as near as possible upon the application 
of ornaments with a surface where effect is flat, and conse- 
quently do not mar the surface. To apply figures, modest, deco- 
rative additions for the ornamentation of surfaces, is allowable, 
as long as they do not clash with the character of the surface ; 
but here the limits that are drawn by the nature of the article 
are not to be overstepped. For every perspective representation 
of a figure painted with the application of light and shade 
intends to deceive the observer ; it lifts itself off the surface and 
110 longer works upon our fancy as a part of the surface, but as 
body. Cases, chests and other large pieces may be decorated in 
this manner; tables, portfolios and similar pieces which in 
themselves are required to have smooth surfaces ; smaller objects 
to be handled, where the sense of touch can at every moment 
convince itself of the attempted deception intended for the eye, 
one will do well to take heed in not painting these with figures 
of a plastic effect. Such contradictions are not to be tolerated 
in principle and should be avoided in the selection of patterns 
nd designs, 



74 WOOD PAINTING. 

To create a real picture in the beginning lies outside the pro- 
vince of the art of wood painting, and therefore the practice of 
the same, as far as it does not reach into the professional art, 
must always be confined within the circle of amateurs. Good, 
correct drawings of the outlines, cleanliness in coloring and a 
proper combination of the colors, is the highest aim the art of 
painting upon wood may achieve; for the artist is greatly 
answerable for the composition of ornaments, where designs are 
used as patterns. 

But even in the narrow limits in which the art of painting 
upon wood moves, it accomplishes much that is beautiful, that 
the acquirement of the same cannot be too strongly recom- 
mended. 

This is especially intended for young ladies, who, in the occu- 
pation of painting upon wood, find just as agreeable and remun- 
erative diversion as the tedious, sense-dulling work of embroidery. 

General Preliminaries. The first essential requirement to 
paint upon wood is, without a doubt, practice in drawing. 

One is easily inclined, inasmuch as there is no self -inventive 
gift employed in connection with it, to consider painting on wood 
as a purely mechanical work, because the design is traced and 
transferred upon wood, by means of tracing paper ; yet there re- 
mains, up to this easy beginning, the further embellishment 
entirely to the free hand, and it is just here that difficulties meet 
the painter unskilled in the art of drawing. 

The difficult point in wood painting lies in the conscientious, 
artistic execution ; the more pains taken in that direction, the 
stronger the lines of beauty and harmony in coloring, the more 
certain it is to obtain something excellent in this work. 

The simplest design, when correctly and cleanly painted, has a 
more agreeable effect upon the observer than the most beautiful 
pattern that has been faultily produced through a series of short- 
comings. 

Requisites. The possession of a good and complete set of 



WOOD PAINTING. 75 

instruments, in a measure, assists in the success of the work. 
The following utensils are used in wood painting : Lead Pen- 
cils, (Faber's B, HB, HH), a pen knife, a lead pencil file, an 
eraser, a horn protractor upon which to rest the compass upon 
round articles, a ruler, a square, a porcelain palette with six cells, 
several good fine and coarse water-color brushes on handles with 
metal ferrules, several sheets of extra fine tracing paper or cloth ; 
the latter is more expensive than the paper, but far more durable, 
in such cases where the drawing is gone over again. For the 
drawing of fine outlines, pens (Gillott's crowquill pens are best) ; 
for heavier outlines or large designs goosequills are best. It is 
desirable to possess a complete outfit of drawing materials, of 
which the following are indispensable : A drawing pen, a com- 
pass with pen and pencil pieces. 

The Colors. It is advisable to use only the genuine India 
ink, as the ordinary India ink nearly always discolors the soft 
tints that are painted over it, which sometimes spoils the entire 
work. The ordinary water-colors, not the covering or Gouache 
colors are to be used. The prepared wood just as readily takes 
the Gouache and covering colors, as a large number of designs of 
natural flowers show, yet this method should not be indulged in, 
for this reason, because it completely covers the texture of the 
wood, thereby giving the art critic an opportunity to censure. 

Since wood painting is mostly an imitation of inlaid wood 
work mosaic as a rule the preference should be given to the 
application of the fitting colors to the stained wood tones. Who 
does not possess a complete outfit of colors, ought at least secure 
the following : sepia, dark sepia, burnt sienna, light ochre, dark 
vermilion, carmine, cobalt blue, Indian red, olive green, Koman 
brown, lampblack and white. 

The best colors are the Dusseldorf (Schonfeld or Winsor & 
Newton's) moist water-colors, in metal tubes or porcelain pans. 
Gold and silver is generally painted from shells, this is to be used 
pparingly, and is polished when the work is finished with a steel 



76 WOOD PAINTING. 

instrument, a knitting-needle, glove buttoner, or an agate burn- 
isher. Red gold has a dark effect, retreating ; green gold, on 
the other hand, stands out and has a light appearance. Black- 
lead is to be had in lumps, and is most effective for bright or red 
ornamentations. Bronze powder is prepared with a little gum 
water. The possession of a magnifying glass is of importance in 
going over the work when finished, and subjecting the same to a 
severe scrutiny. It also greatly assists in the correction of faults 
that may have crept in. 

Transferring the Drawing upon Wood. A design should 
be chosen that corresponds with the size and shape of the wood 
article. A design is seldom spoiled by extending the outer lines, 
yet we should be cautioned against the reverse case, in trying to 
force a large design upon a small space by omitting the outer 
lines that serve as a frame. 

Enlarging and Reducing Designs. If a design is to be 
brought within the compass of another, reduced or enlarged, take 
a proportional divider, or draw a net of equal squares, the original 
or a drawing of the same with a lead pencil, in proportion required 
for the wood surface, which are numbered. In each square ex- 
actly the same parts are drawn from the design which are con- 
tained in the corresponding square on the wood. 

The Divisions of the Wood Surface. At the beginning 
of the work, the surface to be painted is divided by distinct pen- 
cil lines into halves, quarters, sixths, etc., just as the design 
admits of ; these lines serve as a starting point for the traced 
design to be placed upon this, where halves, quarters, etc., must 
fit exactly into these. The measuring is done by means of a 
compass or a strip of paper the length of the object, which gives 
the center point by cutting the same in two. In painting round 
articles, such as lamp plates, table tops, etc., a sheet of paper of 
the exact size is cut out This is folded once, in halves and quar- 
ters, as the case may be. It is spread upon the surface of the 



WOOD PAINTING. 77 

article, then prick through the creases where they cross each 
other. To avoid injury to the center of a round wooden plate by 
the repeated application of a compass, a horn protractor is fas- 
tened to the center with thumb tacks, which leaves the center 
transparent, upon which the compass may be applied with con- 
siderable pressure. In the absence of a compass with an exten- 
sion where large circles are required, a strip of pasteboard is 
substituted; this is fastened to the center by a needle. For 
every cross line a hole is made into the strip, the pencil is inserted 
and drawn around by moving the strip in a circular motion. 

The Tracing and Transferring of Designs. The design 
is carefully drawn upon tracing paper or tracing cloth, by means 
of a medium soft pencil ; the more perfect the drawing is made, 
the more it will lighten the work. If the drawing obtained is 
perfectly symmetrical, i. e., the right half of the same exactly 
like the left, it will save much time and labor by transferring it 
upon the surface by rubbing. If the symmetrical design is 
accompanied in the center by a monogram, motto, figures or 
flowers, these are for the present omitted and traced in a manner 
which will be explained further on. 

The tracing of an entirely symmetrical design is reversed, 
with the drawing turned downward upon the wood and carefully 
observed that the center of the tracing lies completely in cor- 
respondence with the center line of the division line of the sur- 
face. The tracing paper is fastened with wax, and held as firmly 
with the left hand as possible, that it cannot be displaced, and 
rubbed with a paper folder or the thumb-nail of the right hand 
over all parts of the design, until the same is plainly transferred 
upon the wood. For figures, flowers, monograms and all not 
strictly symmetrical designs, the following manner is applied : 
The tracing paper is laid upon the surface, design upward, under 
which a piece of colored transfer paper is placed and the design 
is retraced with a hard lead pencil. For this somewhat slower 
and more tedious manner it is advisable to fasten the tracing and 



78 WOOD PAINTING. 

transfer paper with thumb-tacks. Those parts of the surface are 
selected for the thumb-tacks that are afterwards to be painted 
with black or other ground colors, so that there will be no visible 
traces left after design has been transferred. 

Fixing the Transferred Design. After the design has 
been transferred, all the straight and intersecting lines are care- 
fully measured and compared with the compass from the center 
or the dividing middle lines ; then with the drawing pen and 
India ink the entire design is gone over in fine lines. In figures 
and light ornamental designs, that come upon a dark ground, 
the India ink line is not put over, but closely to the outside pen- 
cil mark, or such figures will become too faint in the beginning, 
and are lost in the dark ground, whilst it can always be remedied 
by the subsequent removal of parts that have been drawn too 
heavily. The entire article is now cleaned from all pencil marks 
left by tracing, and the coloring begins. 

The Coloring. Spread upon the palette, before beginning 
to paint, all the different colors, in sufficient quantity, that are 
to be used. A good rule in coloring the design, is not to apply 
the colors in too dry a state, so that the separate brush strokes 
may not be visible. The coloring is just that part of the work 
which cannot be explicitly enough described and taught in 
written instructions, and can only be thoroughly comprehended 
through the practical knowledge gained by experience, and 
thereby perfected. 

Upon the most delicate tinting of entire surfaces the middle 
tones follow, lastly the dark ground colors, black, and the metals. 
Allow each color to dry thoroughly before beginning with the 
next, or going over it. The colors must stand out boldly from 
each other and should not be too lightly applied ; this must be 
particularly observed in the dark body tints, as the colors lose a 
little of their depth in the process of polishing. 

When the work is completed, the entire drawing is gone over 



WOOD PAINTING. 79 

again with a fine brush or pen ; all the outlines lost in painting 
are reproduced with India ink. 

Clear white upon light wood is to be avoided as much as pos- 
sible ; on the other hand, a mixture of white serves to make the 
light colors stand out more effectively upon gray or black wood. 

Retouching. If there are any weak points in the painting, 
the spots are to be carefully removed with a damp sponge, and 
the dampened parts scraped clean with a penknife. If visible 
holes are left by the thumb tacks used in the tracing of the 
design, a small drop of clear water is applied to them, when 
they will gradually draw together. Paint in good light, have a 
steady table, and keep the design constantly before the eyes dur- 
ing the work. 

In painting boxes and other high objects, it is necessary to 
place on the right and left of the same some other objects, such 
as books, to reach the plane of the surface being painted, in 
order that the hand and arm may rest with ease. 

The Wood Articles. "Wooden articles ready for painting 
are procured from the cabinet makers, or at the art stores. 

There are over 900 different articles in wood for decorating, in 
all shapes and sizes, beautifully and tastily finished, for the artist 
and amateur to paint upon. A few of them may be mentioned 
here tables, panels, workboxes, paper weights, fancy boxes, fans, 
hat brushes, glove boxes, albums, dust pans and brushes, photo 
frames, easels, trays and newspaper holders. What canvas is to 
oil painting, and paper is to color painting, the above articles are 
to the art of painting upon wood. 

Not every ordinary smooth-planed piece of wood is adapted to 
painting. The wood must be prepared for the purpose it is in- 
tended for, or it would cause the color to flow or spread. lime, 
maple, chestnut, ash and holly are the woods generally manufac- 
tured into articles intended for painting upon. Olive wood is 
also excellent for this purpose. In the south of France and 



80 WOOD PAINTINT,. 

Italy, painted olive wood, forms quite an article of commerce, 
being closely allied with the inlaid work. 

Polishing. Procure a bottle of the wood varnish (prepared for 
this purpose) ; in a warm room, with a soft flat brush, go over 
the article as rapidly as possible, with a thin coat. Leave this 
first .coating until the next day to dry, in a place entirely free 
from dust. The varnish is applied twice more in the same man- 
ner ; then have at hand a small bottle of white shellac polish 
and one of linseed oil. Make a small ball of flannel ; put upon 
this a few drops of the oil ; then cover it with a piece of linen, 
which is moistened with the polish, and the article is rubbed in 
a circular manner, without resting upon the article when the 
rubbing is discontinued. If the linen should adhere during the 
polishing, put a drop of the oil upon it. It sometimes requires 
from one to two hours of constant rubbing until the surface is 
completely smooth and polished. 

Designs recommended are those by Minna Laudin, Hermann 
Schaper, E. Wendt, Emil Zschimmer and Elizabeth Hubler. 
They are lithographic color plates, and come in the form of sets. 
Minna Laudin's designs are among the newest. The two 
gets contain over twenty patterns, each fitting exactly in size and 
shape the wooden articles already mentioned. 

Schaper's designs are intended for larger pieces, 
such as table tops, music holders, lamp trays, etc. 
His first scries (entirely new) is divided into five 
sheets, with as many sheets upon which the out- 
lines of the designs are clearly printed, to facili- 
tate the transferring of the same upon wood. 

E. Wendt's designs are both unique and rich 
in their way, and contain considerable ornamen- 
tal work in gold and silver. His designs for 
table tops are extremely handsome. 

Emil Zschimmer's and Elizabeth Hubler's are 
acknowledged as standard works, and favorites 
of the artists engaged in painting upon wood. 




TRANSPARENCIES,- 




HESE transparencies, or window pictures, are of 
late very much used and admired, and are pur- 
chased by those who have no knowledge of how 
they are made, at exhorbitant prices. They are 
made upon glass, perfectly transparent, and re- 
quire a good light to see them. The way these 
pictures are produced is simple, and the process 
easy to learn. In it lies the secret, or funda- 
mental principles, of all glass pictures. 

Instructions. Procure a fine, clear, French plate 
glass, size required, to receive the picture, and make it 
perfectly clean with alcohol. Select the picture you 
may desire from the list of fine steel engravings con- 
tained in magazines, etc. Go over the face with a damp 
sponge, in order to remove the dust or spots that may 
have accumulated upon it, and smoothing it out. Apply 
to the face of the print, with a brush, a paste made from 
amylum, a teaspoonful, and nitrate strontium, ^ ounce 
\ sometimes albumen is used. Now go over the glass 
in the same way, evenly and smoothly. When this is 
done, lay the picture, face down, upon the glass, and 
press with dry cloth until every part of the picture has adhered 
to the glass, and all the air bubbles pressed out. Lay away the 




82 TRANSPARENCIES. 

glass for a few hours, until perfectly dry, when you wet the paper 
and commence rubbing it off; if it works well without any 
further wetting, continue the process until every vestige of paper 
has been removed, and nothing left upon the glass but the out- 
lines of your engraving. Oil it now with castor oil three parts, 
oil of lavender one : if too thick, add turpentine. It is now com- 
plete, and by holding it to the light it will present a beautiful, 
steel-like engraving transparency. 

You can add a border if you like, by pasting around the mar- 
gin a tinted paper ; or to give them still a better finish, back 
them up with a pane of ornamental ground glass, and place in a 
transparency metal frame, with rings to hang them by, which 
can be found at any art store. 





, or Oriental fainting. 




-INSTRUCTION. -i- 




AY the glass over the pattern or copy you wish to 
paint from, such as flowers, birds, wreaths, etc., 
then with a fine pencil brush, or a common writing 
pen, trace all the outlines of your pattern as well 
as possible on the glass, using for that purpose 
black paint made from lampblack and copal 
varnish ; if too thick, add a little turpentine. 
When this is done, paint all the glass outside the 
picture, or that part not occupied by your draw- 
ing, with the black paint, same as used in making 
the outlines, only a trifle thicker. This will give 
your picture a neat background ; other colors can 
be used, but this gives the best body, and is the most appropriate, 
contrasting well with the other colors to be used in the picture, j 



84 CRYSTAL, OR ORIENTAL PAINTING. 

Let it lay until well dried, so the blacJc will not unite with the 
colors you are about to use. Now, with the glass still remaining 
over the copy, you may commence applying the paints, if the 
tracing lines are dry. If you are painting a red rose, use carmine 
and flake white, Prussian blue, and chrome yellow for the leaf, etc., 
using a small camel-hair brush. Continue in this way until you 
have used all the colors which appear in your copy or picture 
underneath, which remains there to guide you, and the pen lines 
upon the glass to separate the colors. When the first color is 
perfectly dry, apply the second, and so on until you have com- 
pleted all the work which the copy demands, using your own 
judgment in the matter, applying them as they appear in 
the picture you are working from. 

When the painting is done and dry, cover the back of the 
transparency with copper or tin-foil crinkled, which gives it a 
sparkling, crystal-like appearance. It is now ready for framing. 
In placing it in the frame, be careful and not press the back- 
board too close on to the foil, or it will destroy the brilliant effect 
in the picture. 

The colors used in this kind of painting must be transparent 
oil colors, with the exception of the background. 

For white, use ground silver or flake white ; for blue, Prussian 
blue ; for pink, mix scarlet lake and silver white ; orange, mix 
chrome yellow and scarlet lake ; for red, use scarlet lake, crimson 
lake, or carmine ; for green, mix Prussian blue and yellow lake ; 
for purple, mix red and blue. Use the best tube paints and 
camel-hair brushes. 

No style of painting has yet been produced which shows trans- 
parent colors to such advantage, and never fails to attract 
attention and admirers wherever introduced. 

It is called Oriental from the fact of its producing effects of 
coloring equal to the colors of Oriental flowers, and the plumage 
of Oriental birds. 



IbT O? I Q TJ 



Italian Landscape Painting | 




t LL honor to the worthy sire who produced the first pic- 
tures upon glass, paper or canvass, with oil; and, 
although those pictures have passed from sight of the 
present generation, we live to enjoy the knowledge given 
*to us through history, that many a fine artist did live long 
enough to give to the world the highest productions of his 
artistic hand ; and, although passed to " that bourne from whence 
no traveler returns," his teachings are still practiced among men. 
And no man, however original he may be, can to-day sit down 
and paint the form or ornament of a house, but that it will be 
the development or degradation of forms practiced by the artists 
of early days. The style of painting which is given below is 
somewhat ancient, but very ornamental and useful; and, 
although to an extent it passed from existence years ago, the 
lovers of decorative art have again revived it in the East, and it 
is now being sought after and practiced by thousands on account 
of its being cheap and easy to attain. This plan of transferring 



86 ANTIQUE PAINTING. 

the engraving from paper to glass, and discarding the paper 
wholly, is simply wonderful. We give it below : 

Procure a fine quality of French glass, make perfectly clean 
with alcohol, then apply with a stiff brush a coat of damar var- 
nish ; after drying about an hour, apply another coat, evenly and 
smoothly; this allow to dry about ten minutes, or just long 
enough to make it sticky. Procure an uncolored steel engraving 
that you may desire to see painted, and trim off all the paper not 
connficted with the picture. Dampen it with a sponge or wet 
cloth, and while yet damp place the engraving on the glass with 
the face to the varnish, rubbing with your dry hand or cloth 
until every part adheres to the surface, and all air has been re- 
moved, rubbing from the center. 

Lay this away a few hours, until it is perfectly dry, then dampen 
the picture again, and commence rubbing therefrom the paper ; 
continue this until you have removed every vestige of the same, 
nothing remaining upon the glass but the face of the engraving. 
Now apply a coat of boiled oil, let it dry fifteen or twenty min- 
utes, and apply another, or a coat of varnish', evenly and smoothly ; 
after laying an hour or two it is ready to receive the paint. As 
the paper has been all removed the colors will strike through 
readily. Arrange the glass to the light in such a manner that 
you may see through it, and apply the colors to the engraving on 
the back, as in the Grecian oil. The outlines and shades are 
already produced by the engraving, and all that is necessary now 
is to place the colors where they belong, which, with a little 
practice, can soon be acquired. 

The paints used are, yellow lake, yellow ochre, chrome yellow, 
chrome green, Prussian blue, burnt sienna, Vandyke brown, 
ivory black, verdigris green, silver white, mixed with damar var- 
nish. Use brushes as in Grecian oiL 



GRECIAN OIL PAINTING, 




KECIAN OIL PAINTINGS are made from 
^engravings and lithographs. There is but 
little of it done in this country; and, 
although there was quite an interest man- 
. if ested in it here a few years ago, it did 
not live long, and this is the first time I 
have seen the instructions in print since 
or before. 

We select the engraving most desired to hang upon 
our walls, (regardless of size), and place it upon a 
frame or stretcher with small tacks or glue ; this pre- 
pares it for the work. When ready, commence by 
sponging it with clean water ; when dry, saturate it 
well with turpentine, applied with a large size paint brush ; when 
this is done, apply Grecian varnish in the same way, spreading it 
smoothly and evenly over the surface, until all the dry spots in 
the paper have entirely disappeared. The application may be 
made on either side of the picture. When done, let it lay level 
(with the face down), twenty-four hours, and it will then do to 
paint, if free from spots and perfectly transparent. When you 



88 



GRECIAN OIL PAINTING. 



commence upon the back to paint, follow the lines with those 
colors necessary to make it look natural ; the shading being made 
by the engraving, nothing is necessary but to apply the colors 
required. Suit your taste in choosing those colors. Mix the 
paints with varnish made from balsam fir three parts, alcohol 
two parts, and spirits turpentine one part ; or use tube paints, 
which are already prepared. 

In painting the figure of a person, if the eyes are blue, mix 
Prussian blue and white ; for dark eyes or hair, Vandyke brown 
works with good effect ; for flesh color, mix red, white and a lit- 
tle yellow, adding a little more red for lips or cheeks. You may 
suit your own taste in regard to the color for background, but I 
will suggest equal parts of blue, red, green, and Vandyke brown, 
covering all that part which is not connected with the object you 
have painted. Don't apply a second color until the first is per- 
fectly dry. When done, give the face a coat of varnish. 

The colors suitable for this painting are chrome yellow, yellow 
lake, emerald green, carmine, Prussian blue, burnt sienna, raw 
sienna, Vandyke brown, ivory black and silver lake. 

The brushes required are one large varnish brush, with two or 
three small to medium size camel or sable hair paint brushes. 






GLASS SIGN WORK; 



FOR LETTERING DOOR PLATES, 
ORNAMENTING GLASS WOKK BOXES, ETC. 




,ow this art may be applied to making signs of 
every description, numbers of dwellings, door 
plates, ornamental borders for pictures, orna- 
menting work boxes, etc., which are made at a 
trifling expense, and unsurpassed for brilliancy. 
First. Clean well the glass to be used, with 
alcohol. Second. Wet with your tongue the 
side cleaned, and immediately lay over the 
whole of that side a coat of gold or silver leaf. Third. Let this 
dry on it will take from two to four minutes. Fourth. When 
the leaf has dried on the glass, polish it with a ball of cotton. 
Some of the leaf may possibly be rubbed off by the polishing, but 
this is of no consequence. Fifth. After polishing, wet again 
with your tongue the whole side you have polished, and lay 
another coating of leaf over it. Let this dry. Sixth. After the 
second coat of leaf is dry, polish it as before, with the ball of 
cotton, and then your sign or door plate will be ready for let- 
tering. 

As a border will add much to the appearance of the plate, I 
mil now instruct you how to make one. Kule with the point of 



90 GLASS SIGN WOBK. 

a needle two lines around the edge of the plate, the outside line 
one-quarter of an inch from the edge. After the lines have been 
ruled, wet your pencil brush, and with it moisten the leaf laying 
outside of the space between the lines you have ruled, and remove 
with the brush the leaf thus moistened, working gently from the 
lines. Your border is now made. 

Your next step is to put the lettering on the glass. To do this, 
first measure the height of your letters, then rule with the needle 
two lines as far apart as the letters are high. "When this is done, 
lay the letters on the leaf, one at a tune, beginning at the right 
hand, and placing the back of the letters up, or backwards. 
Hold the letters on firmly with your left hand, and with your 
right mark around them with a needle. When you have marked 
around all the letters in this way, wet with your tongue the pen- 
cil brush, and apply it to all the leaf on the glass, except what is 
needed for the letters and border ; then remove the leaf thus wet 
by rubbing it gently with the brush. 

The next process is to apply the Japan. Do this with a small 
paint brush, and cover the whole of the side which has been cov- 
ered with the silver leaf. It will require two coats, and after 
these are dry you have an elegant plate. 

All that now remains to be done is to place the plate in a frame, 
to do this apply a little putty to the edges of the glass, and set it 
in the frame ; then lay upon the back a piece of paper of the 
same size, and over that a piece of tin, and fill up the remaining 
space with plaster of Paris. Your door plate is now complete. 

To ornament glass work boxes, flowering, etc., proceed as above. 

Articles Used. A small camel-hair pencil brush, cost three 
cents ; blue or black enamel, or Japan, per gill, 25 cents ; selected 
silver leaf, per book, (24 sheets), 24 cents; patterns for letters, 
per set, 37 cents ; patterns for numbers, per set, 25 cents. 

[NOTE. A gill of Japan will answer for fifty signs. A book 
of silver leaf will answer for six or eight door plates.] 



FOE THE EAST AND INEXPENSIVE 

DECORATION OF WINDOWS, CHURCHES, PUBLIC BUILDINGS, AHD 
PRIVATE HOUSES. 



T|ITREMANIE is the process by which glass of all kinds may be 
W easily, durably, inexpensively, and elegantly decorated by any 
person. Diaphanie, which this art supersedes, was a great 
success, (no less than 250,000 sheets of designs having been sold 
in England alone). It had, however, its defects ; the sheets 
being applied with transfer varnish, bubbles of air sometimes 
remained between the design and the glass, which in the subse- 
quent process of rubbing off the paper, resulted in holes ; this 
rubbing off, moreover, required much time, patience, and care, 
and was rarely perfectly performed. These defects are obviated 
by Vitremanie. By this method the designs, after being covered 
with Glucine, may be applied to the glass with water only, and 
the paper removed entire, a few minutes sufficing for the opera- 
tion, and nothing being left upon the glass but the design in 
colors of unclouded brilliancy and transparency. 



92 V1TREMANIE. 

The Materials Required are as follows: The printed 
designs, three brushes, (two of camel's hair and one of hog's 
hair), a bottle of each, Glucine and enamel varnish, a roller, a 
sponge, a little blotting paper, and a pair of scissors. 

The instructions are very simple. With the camel-hair brush 
pass a coating of Glucine over the colored face of the designs 
that are proposed to be used, care being taken that the Glucine 
does not touch the plain side of the paper ; the sheets of the de- 
signs should be laid flat to dry, they should be left two or three 
days before being used, and they will remain good for three 
months, or even longer. 

To apply the design to the glass it should be wetted with water 
on both sides, the glass should also be wetted ; lay the design on 
the glass, and roll well down all air bubbles will be easily 
removed by this means keep the plain side of the paper wet for 
a few minutes, then, with the point of a knife, carefully raise a 
corner of the paper and pull it gently off ; the work is now to be 
washed with a camel-hair brush and water, and afterwards dried 
by placing a piece of blotting paper over the work, and rolling it ; 
leave it now for a few hours, then coat it with enamel varnish, 
and the work is finished. In removing the paper it is sometimes 
better, particularly when the design is large, to carefully scratch 
a hole in the paper, and tear it off in pieces from the center. 
The work is more easily performed on free glass, cut to the proper 
sizes, and afterwards fixed over the glass already in the window, 
by means of a bead ; it may, however, be done upon the window 
as it stands. 

The designs may be arranged to fit any window, strips of lead 
foil applied with gum being used for the purpose of covering the 
edges of the borders, groundings, etc., where they join. For cir- 
cles and other shapes the strips of lead may be stretched with the 
thumb and fingers to any pattern desired, the creases being 
smoothed by the handle of a knife or paper-cutter, slightly 
wetted. 






HE Diaphanie prints for transferring to glass are 
very similar to the Decalcomanies ; they are col- 
ored lithographs arranged on paper for transfer- 
ring to glass, to represent stained glass, and is 
equally as pretty, and not so expensive. By this 
plan you may ornament your church windows, 
lamp shades, glass work hoxes, or wherever stained 
glass is employed. 

The materials required are a bottle of fixatif for 
fastening it to the glass, one or two medium size 

brushes, a bottle of transparent varnish, a plate of glass, and 

your design. 

The Application is as follows : Lay on a coat of the fixatif 
to the face of the design, and place it upon the glass, pressing it 
closely and evenly, that it may adhere perfectly to the entire 
surface of the glass. In order to do this, it may be well to lay 
over the design a piece of heavy damp paper, and then roll it to 
the glass Arith a small roller used for that purpose ; when this is 
done, and it is dry, apply a coat of transparent varnish with a 
flat camel-hair brush. 

Some of the designs used are as follows : There are the Japa- 
nese and China figures, autumn leaves, Grecian and Egyptian 
heads, birds of paradise, soldiers, national figures in bronze, but- 
terflies, angels with wings, roses, fruits and flowers, buildings, 
landscapes, etc., besides ten thousand other choice selections 
which can be furnished to you by mail, at catalogue prices. 



FAINTING- DN 




SILK, ISUTIN IflHD (VELVET 




WITH THE ENGLISH OIL COLOBS. 




: ROM all the different styles of modern painting, we 
'select this as the most admired, and seemingly the most 
^sought after by ladies of taste, fashion, or wealth; for 
nothing will aid more in beautifying the dress than a 
1^ beautiful flower or butterfly painted upon the little satin or 
silk scarf which surrounds the neck, the collar or cuffs ; 
your monogram on one corner the pocket handkerchief, or 
any other portion of the dress desired by the lady artist and lady 
of taste. 

Transferring. First get the outlines of the picture you wish 
to paint, by use of transfer paper, or in the following manner : 
Lay the picture upon the silk to receive the painting, and with a 
needle-point prick through the picture, following closely the out- 
lines, until you have passed over the whole, holding it to its place 
with one hand with the other rub over the perforated part a 
black powder or fine crayon. For this purpose use a piece of 
velvet, rubbing it sufficiently to pass the powder through the 
holes. On raising the picture you have the outlines of it left on 
the silk, which is now ready to receive the paints. This method 
is merely given to aid the beginner in getting started ; those more 



PAINTING ON SILK, SATIN AND VELVET. 



95 



familiar with painting can commence at once upon the silk, 
without the aid of transferring. 

The Painting. Stretch your silk upon a board, and lay the 
board flat. After you have the outlines, proceed with fine 
pointed brush, the same as other fine painting. Do not place a 
brush full of paint upon the work at once, but use paint lightly 
at first, otherwise it may crack and harm the picture. 

In painting on velvet, with oil, place such colors as are intended 
to be used, on blotting paper for a couple of days, until the paper 
absorbs the oil. This will leave the colors in better condition for 
this kind of work. Use colors lightly a great deal of stippling is 
needed. For raised work, or what is sometimes called Kensing- 
ton painting, use sugar of lead, with the colors as a medium. 

N. B. Use for this painting the English Oil Colors, and mix 
Math gold size or opaque mixture. 

After the work is completed, if it looks dull, you can Hrg it 
out again by using the sicatif gently upon the surface. 




J^TAINING 




AND IVORY 



fELLOW. Diluted nitric acid will produce a fine yellow on 
wood ; sometimes it makes a brown, and if used strong, it 
will be nearly black. 

MAHOGANY COLOR Is produced by a mixture of madder, Bra- 
zil wood, and logwood, dissolved in water and put on hot. The 
proportions must be varied, according to the tint required. 

BLACK. Brush the wood several times over with a hot decoc- 
tion of logwood, and then with an iron lacquer ; or, if this cannot 
be had, a strong solution of nut-galls. 

KED can be made by a solution of dragon's blood in spirits of 
wine. This stain is to be laid on the wood boiling hot, and before 
it dries it should be laid over with alum water. 

BLUE. Ivory may be stained blue thus : Soak the ivory in a 
solution of verdigris and nitric acid, which will make it green, 
then dip it into a solution of pearlash boiling hot, and it will 
turn blue. 

To stain ivory, black, the same process as for wood may be 
employed. 

Purple may be produced by soaking the ivory in a solution of 
sal-ammoniac and four times its weight of nitrous acid. 



TO PRODUCE A CRYSTALLINE SURFACE- 



ON PAPER, WOOD AND GLASS. 



CONCEHTKATED solution of salt, acetate of soda, Epsom salt, 
etc., mixed with Dextrine in the cold, and laid on thinly as 
possible, with a broad, soft brush, and allowed to dry. The 
paper must be sized first, otherwise the formation of crystals will 
be irregular, on account of the absorption of the liquid. The 
coating on glass is rendered adhesive by brushing it with a solu- 
tion of shellac in alcohol. 

Colored glass arranged in this way makes a pretty transparency. 

A beautiful adhesive coating of pearly lustre upon paper pro- 
duces a very handsome card. 





"Dut nf Art Culture grows RefinemEnt," 






HINA PAINTING. 




PAINTING ON 

CHINA, PORCELAIN, EARTHENWARE & ENAMEL 



Colors Used, and tie Process oi Burning them in. 

the present time this art is receiving a great deal of 
attention among the American peo- 
'ple, and especially the intelligent 
class, who are taking every opportun- 
ity of informing themselves in regard to 
the plan of moulding the various orna- 
ments for use, the art of decorating them, 
the particular kinds of paints used, and the 
operation through which they pass in the 
burning in of the colors. It would be use- 
less for me to attempt a book on art that 
would meet the wants of the people, and 
omit China Painting, which is gaining uni- 
versal favor among the higher classes in 
eastern cities. 

The art is applied directly to the orna- 
mentation of the house, which makes it 
much sought after by ladies, who take pride 




100 CHINA PAINTING. 

in ornamenting their china and earthenware by the use of the 
La Croix Enamel Colors, which are arranged especially for this 
kind of painting. 

After the paints are applied, the ware requires a certain amount 
of heat to fix the colors, and prevent it from being effaced by 
washing. Commence work by first 

Tracing the Drawing. For tracing, details should be left 
out as much as possible, or at any rate indicated soberly. 

DIEECT OUTLINE. If the pupil can draw well, she will outline 
her subject lightly on the object she wishes to paint, directly, 
without tracing, by means of a lithographic pencil. 

TRANSFERRING. When you want to make a minute and com- 
plicated drawing, you are obliged to transfer, to avoid getting 
double lines on the china. 

Before transferring, prepare your piece of ware as follows : 
Pour three drops of alcohol on the plaque or white plate intended 
for decoration. 

It is very easy to trace on a perfectly flat surface. We shall 
mention several ways. 

FIRST METHOD. Tracing by Rubbing. After having traced 
from the engraving, or original model to be reproduced, the out- 
line of your subject (figure, ornament, or landscape), with one 
of the lithographic pencils, you reverse the tracing over a sheet 
of white paper, and go over the outline again very carefully witli 
the same pencil ; this being done, prepare your piece of china 
with medium as we have just described. The vegetal tracing 
paper is then fixed, by means of little lumps of modeling wax, on 
the exact spot the subject is to occupy ; and when that is done, 
you have only to rub all over the outline with an ivory knife, to 
make the lead that is on the vegetal tracing paper convey itself 
distinctly on to the previously prepared oiled enamel. 

SECOND METHOD. Tracing with a Tracing Point. Take 
either black, blue, or carmine transferring paper, according to 
the tint of the painting that is to be done. The carmine gives 



CHINA PAINTING. 101 

all security for the success of the painting ; it does not soil it. 
When the piece of paper has been rubbed with carmine from a 
soft crayon, after taking great care to remove what is superfluous 
it is cut to the size of the subject, or rather to that of the space 
you are to paint on. 

To make sure of tracing on the exact spot, you must draw a 
horizontal line in the middle of your drawing, one also in the 
middle of the tracing paper, and one as well on the porcelain, 
with crosses and letters to each end as landmarks ; two crosses 
marked A and B on the horizontal line of the enamel, and -}- -{- 
a b on the horizontal line of the tracing paper. The piece is 
prepared with oil of turpentine or spirits of wine. At the end 
of two or three minutes you place your drawing on the porcelain 
in accordance with the marks -\ \- a b, taking care to place the 
middle lines one on the top of the other, a on A, and b on B ; 
you fix the vegetal tracing paper by means of small bits of 
gummed paper, or else with little balls of modeling wax ; the 
sheet of tracing paper being quite firm, you slide beneath it the 
piece of paper rubbed with carmine, blue, or black lead ; you 
then take a porcupine quill with a fine point, and without lean- 
ing too hard you go over all the outline. You must be careful 
not to press your fingers on the drawing, for it often causes the 
deposit of powder to be of the same color as your transferring 
paper, which spoils the result and prevents careful painting. 
Before finishing all the work, lift up a corner of the overlying 
paper to see if the tracing does mark. It will be but an affair 
of habit to trace well, for it is by experiments frequently re- 
peated that one comes to know exactly the amount of strength 
to be used so that the transferring paper may mark sufficiently. 
This paper lasts a long time, and improves as it grows old ; you 
must prevent it from getting creased. For this, each time it 
has been used, it should be put away into a brown paper cover, 
wherein the tracing papers are also placed. 

THIRD METHOD is by pricking the outline with small holes, 
and in making what is called a ' Poncif ," 



102 CHINA PAINTING. 

In a bottle containing alcohol the brushes and the dabbers 
are cleaned after each day's work. To preserve these useful in- 
struments it is indispensable never to leave any color in them ; 
you must take care to wipe them well after this washing, and 
even to blow a little on them, to make the spirits of wine evap- 
orate, for if any were to remain it would spoil the color and 
take away the painting already finished. With a few drops of 
spirits of wine, the most loaded palette can be instantaneously 
cleaned, and the driest painting can be effaced. For this reason 
I recommend that the little bottle of spirits of wine be kept al- 
ways far away from you during your work ; if a single drop 
were to fall on the painting, it would immediately sinear and 
obliterate the work done. 

Cleaning brushes with spirits of wine has to be done every 
day. From time to time a more thorough cleaning with soft 
soap is resorted to ; the brushes are steeped in the soap, and are 
washed the next day only. 



PORCELAIN AND EARTHENWARE. COMPOSITION, 
USE AND MIXING OF THE COLORS. 



GENERAL INFORMATION. 

E borrow from M. Lacroix his classification of colors, 
which is very practical with regard to their employ- 
ment in painting : 

" CLASSIFICATION OF COLORS WITH RESPECT TO IRON. 
Iron plays an important part in the composition of a 
great many enamel colors ; for this reason I have taken it 
as a standard for my classification of colors into three groups. 

" FIRST GROUP. Colors that do not contain any iron : First, 
the white ; secondly, the blues ; thirdly, the colors from gold. 

"A horn or ivory knife is preferable for the use of colors of 
this group. 




CHINA PAINTING. 103 

"A glass nrnller is still better than knives. 

" SECOND GKOUP. Colors with but little trace of iron. This 
group includes the yellows and greens, several of which colors 
contain iron in small quantities. 

" THIRD GROUP. Colors with an iron basis, or of which iron 
is one of the coloring parts : First, the reds, fleshes, red browns, 
and violets of iron ; secondly, the browns, yellow browns, ochres, 
blacks and a greater part of the greys." 

The enamel colors usually designated by the name of iron 
colors are : All the browns ; the greys, excepting platina grey ; 
the blacks, minus iridium black ; the ochres ; the reds, and the 
violets of iron. 

The enamel colors said to be with a golden basis are : The 
carmines ; crimson lake ; the purples, and the violets of gold. 

TESTS. The amount of flux added to the coloring oxides for 
the manufacture of enamel colors varies according to the color ; 
this difference, joined to the diversity of the chemical elements, 
causes actions in the firing which may modify certain colors and 
even make them disappear entirely ; it is said expressively that 
they have been eaten up, devoured by the fire. We shall cite, as 
an example, the mixture of ivory yellow with carmine, as one of 
those which decompose in the firing. Other causes act likewise 
on enamel colors during firing ; the intensity, more or less great, 
of the heat, the thickness, and the amount of oil in the color, 
the way it is used, etc. 

In order to well understand the various influences, and to se- 
cure yourself against accidents, you must be continually making 
tests of the mixtures yourself; it is the only way to paint with 
safety. 

It is indispensable for the test to be double, that is, on two 
small bits of precisely the same manufacture of china as the 
piece you wish to paint. The same mixture is made on both 
small pieces, they are both dried, and one only is fired in order 
to be able to judge what change is caused by the firing, by com-t 
paring it with the unfired test you have kept by you. Besides, 



104 CHINA PAINTING. 

you will be able to make sure of a satisfactory result by compar- 
ing your experiments with the test tiles and plates of fired colors. 

Mixed colors should be stirred with the brush when used ; with- 
out this precaution they would separate ; light blue would rise on 
dark blue, yellow on green, ivory yellow on carnation. 

Some hints follow which it will be advantageous to verify and 
to carry out by tests. They apply generally to painting on por- 
celain or earthenware for the ordinary muffle. 

FUSIBILITY. Hard colors (those which require the greatest 
heat to make them fuse) spoil and often destroy those of a softer 
flux (that fuse more easily). The flux added by the manufac- 
turer to the coloring oxide lightens the tint of the color ; dark 
colors are therefore generally harder than light ones. In the 
palette of M. Lacroix the colors more fusible than the rest, 
although taking the same time to fire, are light sky-blue, light 
carmine A, pearl grey, warm or russet grey, and ivory yellow, all 
light colors, 

THICKNESS. The tint of enamel colors get darker when you 
increase their thickness. But you must beware of doing it too 
much. Light and fusible colors used too thick, blister in firing ; 
it is prudent to give them only a medium thickness. 

You should apply in drops those colors only that are specially 
designed for the purpose ; permanent white, permanent yellow, 
and relief. They hold on earthenware, but their use on porcelain 
is liable to failure. 

MEDIUMS. Experience will prove that if too much oil of tur- 
pentine is added to the colors used, which is called adding " fat," 
they will craze in the firing. Make some trials by exaggerating 
this fault. You will remark nevertheless that colors applied 
very thin, although with much " fat," do not craze. The cracks 
caused in the firing, by the action of the resinous part of the oil, 
which evaporates and causes the white of the enamel to reappear, 
is called crazing. 

CONDUCT OF THE WORK. It is very important in the first 
painting to use the most fusible light colors, and those most easily 



CHINA PAINTING. 105 

developed in the first firing, which is the strongest. - Commence 
always 011 a lighter scale than the final tint, for in pottery paint- 
ing any color made too dark in firing cannot be made light 
again. When the mixtures have produced, for example, some 
browns or russet hues which have not glazed in the first firing, 
the glazing is brought back by a little fusible light grey, applied 
before the second firing for retouches. These short general in- 
structions will be resumed and developed in the following 
lessons. 



SPECIAL INFORMATION CONCERNING PAINTING 
COLORS. 



MODE OF USE MIXTURES CONCOEDANCE OF ENAMEL WITH 

MOIST AND OIL COLORS, AND THEIK USUAL 

TECHNICAL NAMES. 




'HITES, belonging to the first group. White is obtained 
by permamtit white, (for high lights), and Chinese white, 
a color of very limited use in painting, it being prefer- 
able to keep the white of the china when possible. 

Permanent white, alone or mixed with other colors for height- 
ening, which is called high light, or relief, requires perfect grind- 
ing. It should be tried by repeated and well fired tests before 
using it for important works. It is lifted up with the point of 
the brush, and laid without spreading. It could not bear two 
firings ; it is put at the second firing, which is always less pow- 
erful. 

BLUES. (First group.) In his character as a chemist, M. La- 
croix gives us, in his work already quoted, the general reason for 
excessive care in using blues "All the blues, with very few ex 



106 CHINA PAINTING. 

oeptions, derive their color from cobalt. ... As the mixture 
of cobalt and iron produces, proportion ably, tints varying from 
light grey to black, it is well to take great precautions in painting 
when blues are used with reds, fleshes, browns and ochres. It 
follows as a natural consequence, that when you wish to have 
some beautiful shades of blue, you must avoid using brushes 
which have already served for one of the iron colors, and have 
not been properly cleaned." 

Blues are laid on in very thin coatings, particularly blue green. 

Ordinary oil medium. 

The first painting is but little loaded, and is shaded with the 
same tint in a second coating, added to grey in the last firing for 
the darkest parts. 

Here are some notes on the concordance of enamel colors with 
oil colors and their usual names. 

Sky Blue sky blue. 

Light Blue light sky blue. 

Blue Verditer two-thirds ultramarine blue; one-third deep 
blue green. Slight oiling. 

Barbeau Blue, or Smalt Victoria blue. 

Marine Blue (in oils) half Victoria blue, half carmine No. 2. 

Cobalt deep ultramarine. 

Prussian Blue one-third dark blue ; one-third Victoria blue ; 
one-third ultramarine; a touch of grey No. 2; a very little 
touch of purple. 

Indigo dark blue ; a touch of raven black. 

CARMINES AND PURPLE. (First Group.) Carmines must be 
used very thin, lest they should turn yellow in the firing. You 
must put but little oil to avoid shrivelling. Never touch them 
with a knife ; the brush must be sufficient. It is also recom- 
mended, when using purple, to fill the brush well and to turn it 
round and round to dissolve the little gritty lumps generally 
found at the opening of the tubes. When a pink color has had. 
an addition of purple to it, spirits of lavender with a drop of oil 
of turpentine should be pref erred to turpentine only, 



CHINA PAINTING. 107 

All the carmines are shaded with the same tint. Purples are 
also used for strong shadows, and blues for reflected lights. If 
light tints or pinks are made with light yellows, these colors must 
not be spread one over the other, but side by side, otherwise the 
carmine tints would be injured. In the first painting, carmines 
and purples are to be laid on very light ; it is only in the second 
firing that strengthening touches are made. 

" When carmines are fired in the muffle at too low a tempera- 
ture, silver takes the upper hand and the color has a dirty yellow 
tint ; if, on the contrary,' the temperature is too high, the silver 
Bhade is completely destroyed, and the carmine becomes lilac or 
violet, which explains the difficulty in firing carmines. The 
same thing takes place with purples, but in a considerably less 
perceptible degree, because of the shade being much darker and 
cassius being in a larger quantity." A. Lacroix. 

ENAMEL CARMINES AND PURPLES are equivalent to the oil 
colors of the same name. 

Light Pink Carmine A and carmine No. 1. 

Deeper Pink Carmine No. 2 with carmine No. 3. 

Laky Red Crimson lake. 

Purple Lake Carmine No. 1 and a touch of purple. 

Peony Pink Half ruby purple ; half carmine No. 1. 

Chinese Pink Carmine No. 3 ; touch of ruby purple. 

Lakes (in oils) Carmines. 

Crimson Lake (in oils) Purples. 

Red Purple Deep purple. 

Crimson Crimson purple. 

LILACS AND VIOLETS. (1st group, except the violet of iron, 
which belongs to the 3d group.) The same precautions are re- 
quired in using lilacs as for carmines. 

Lilac Half carmine No. 1; half sky-blue; a touch of 
carmine No. 3. 

Mauve Half carmine A ; half ultramarine. 

Magenta Two-thirds carmine No. 3; one-third deep ultra- 
marine; a touch of ruby purple. 



108 CHINA PAINTING. 

Violet Light violet of gold. 

Deep Violet Deep violet of gold. 

Light Pansy Light violet of gold, with a touch of deep ultra- 
marine. 

Deep Pansy Deep violet of gold, sustained more or less and 
with an addition of ultramarine. 

REDS. (3d group, except the purples.) Red, a predominant 
color, is nearly always used alone. Thus, the reddish tips of 
green leaves are obtained by placing the red next the green, but 
not by putting it over. With the dark colors, on the contrary, it 
is red that disappears. 

Chinese vermilion in oils has an equivalent tint in coral for 
porcelain applied thin ; backgrounds are made of it, but it would 
be risking a great deal to use it in painting, on account of its 
extreme sensibility in firing ; besides, it suffers no mixing. Scar- 
let vermilion is approached by adding a touch of flesh No. 1 to 
capucine red, and laying on this mixture in a moderate thickness. 

Capucine Red Capucine red. 

Poppy Red Half capucine red ; half deep purple. A satis- 
factory result is obtained only at the third application of this 
mixture, which loses at each firing. 

Madder Capucine red ; a touch of purple and of carmine 
No. 3. 

Gules (hi heraldry) Capucine red and a touch of purple. 

Venetian Red (in oils) Violet of iron (third group). 

YELLOWS. (Second group.) Certain yellows greatly destroy 
the colors mixed with them, and even make them disappear en- 
tirely. This disadvantage is perceived when too much ivory yel- 
low is mixed with red, or when that yellow is placet! abundantly 
over other colors. 

"The yellow called silver yellow contains no silver ; it is com- 
posed of jonquil yellow and orange yellow. Yellows that contain 
no iron (yellow for mixing and jonquil yellow) are generally pre- 
ferred for making fresh greens. On the other hand, for mixing 



CHINA PAINTING. 109 

with iron colors, yellows that contain already this metal are 
used." A. Lacroix. 

Light yellows scale very easily ; the dark yellows, being less 
fusible, need to be used moderately thin in the first painting, for 
the first fire develops them ; at the second firing they increase in 
depth, and if they are too heavily loaded they cannot be made 
lighter again. 

Avoid using yellows next to blues, which would produce a green 
tint. For the centers of blue flowers, which necessitates some 
yellow, the place must be well scraped before putting the color. 

Permanent yellow, (half white and half yellow for mixing), 
serves for placing lights in drapery and yellow flowers, as well as 
high lights in ornaments. 

Lemon Yellow Yellow 47 of Sevres, with a touch of silver 
yellow. 

Golden Yellow Half silver yellow ; half jonquil yellow. 

Saffron Yellow Two-thirds ivory yellow ; one-third flesh No. 
1 ; a touch of capucine red. 

Salmon Two-thirds ivory yellow; one-third flesh No. 2; a 
touch of carmine No. 3. 

Straw Color Yellow for mixing, used very lightly. 

Yellow Lake Yellow for mixing. 

Dark Chrome Yellow Silver yellow; a touch of jonquil 
yellow. 

Light Chrome Yellow Jonquil yellow. 

Indian Yellow Half jonquil yellow ; half ochre. 

Naples Yellow Ivory yellow. 

Orange Yellow Orange yellow. 

Maize Half ivory yellow ; half orange yellow. 

GREENS. (Second group.) For foliage it is well to remember 
that dark tints placed in advance of light ones destroy the latter 
in the firing. 

All the greens, whether in foliage or in drapery, can be shaded 
with browns, reds, and carmine tints. 



110 CHINA PAINTING. 

By painting over for the second fire, foliage can be made pur- 
ple or bluish. 

Dark green, being very powerful, should be used with caution. 

The blue-greens are used for the distance, but then exces- 
sively light ; they are tinted with capucine red for the horizon. 

Emerald-stone Green Emerald-stone green. 

"Water Green Half apple green ; half deep blue-green. 

Veronese Green One-third apple green; one-third chrome 
green ; one-third emerald-stone green. 

Malachite Apple green ; a touch of emerald-stone green. 

Blue-green Deep blue-green. 

Dark Green Two- thirds chrome green 3 B; one-third dark 
green. 

Bottle Green or Sap Green Sap green. 

Emerald Green Two-thirds blue-green ; one-third emerald- 
stone green. 

BROWNS. (Third group.) The artistic browns for china 
which steady painters prefer, are vigorous browns, fresh when 
mixed, and resisting well the action of the fire, but which have 
not the brilliancy of the less coloring browns. 

The warm browns in oils exist for china. The deep red brown 
and mixtures of violet of iron and of laky red correspond to the 
red browns. 

Golden Brown Golden brown. 

Vandyke Brown It is impossible to obtain it exactly. The 
nearest approach would be by mixing brown 108 with violet of 
iron. 

Raw Sienna Sepia. 

Orange Mars Uranium yellow and a touch of purple. 

BLACKS. (Third group.) The blacks in oils are represented 
in the palette for pottery by raven, ivory and iridium black, 
which answers all purposes. 

If these blacks fail, others can be composed by mixtures of 
simple colors, as dark reds and dark blues. It would be better 
to operate in two firings to avoid crazing. 



CHINA PAINTING. Ill 

The use of iron reds is not admitted on soft paste ; the blacks 
are to be made with indium black, which is ready made, or with 
purple and dark green. It is rare that black is needed for sub- 
jects painted on soft paste. It is sometimes used in decoration 
for surrounding ornaments with a line, but seldom for back- 
grounds, excepting on decorative vases of a certain style. 

GREYS. (Third group.) A grey of some kind is always ob- 
tained by mixing complementary colors ; reds with greens, or 
yellows with violets, violet being a combination of carmine and 
blue. 

The greys obtained by mixing greens, ready made or composed, 
with carmine or purple, as required, are very frequently used by 
flower painters. 

Experience on this subject can only be acquired by continual 
trials. 

Dove Color Dove color. 

Ash Grey Light grey used lightly, and a touch of sky blue. 

Pearl Grey Pearl grey No. 6. 

Eusset Grey Warm grey. 

Brown Grey Grey and sepia. 



MONOCHROME PAINTING ON PORCELAIN OR 
EARTHENWARE. 



INSTRUCTION. 




E now come to painting. Begin on porce- 
lain by a plate, and on earthenware by a 
tile. If the pupil has had no practice either in 
water colors or in oils if, in a word, has no idea 
as yet of setting a palette, undertake first a mono- 
chrome, that is to say, a painting done with one 
color only, heightened by one or two other tones. 



112 CHINA 1'AlVnXG. 

Monochromes are made in the following tints: Grisailles, 
green, blue-green, blue, violet of iron, carmine, purple capucine 
red, sepia, red brown, bitumen. 

Deep red brown and violet of iron are the two colors easiest to 
be used. 

Grisaille Monochrome : Light grey No. 1, touched up with 
brown grey. 

Greys Nos. 1 and 2 ; mix a little carmine No. 1 to warm up 
the tints. 

On porcelain the bodies of cupids are often done in grisaille, 
with a little carmine at the extremities. 

Green Emerald-stone green and deep green. 

Blue-green Blue-green, touched up with the same color. 

Blue Deep ultramarine ; dark blue ; permanent white. Or 
common blue, shaded with itself; any other blue would 
spoil it. 

Violet of Iron Violet of iron, and the same with a grey tint. 

Carmine Light carmine A ; deep carmine No. 3. 

Purple Deep purple, strengthened by the same tint placed at 
the second firing. 

Capucine Red Capucine red : orange red ; sepia. Or orange 
yellow and capucine red in juxtaposition; the capuciue red 
touched up with red brown. 

Sepia Sepia touched up with the same shade. 

Eed Brown Orange yellow for light and distant tints ; the 
foreground deep red brown. Or deep red brown heightened with 
bitumen. Or else deep red brown and sepia. 

Bitumen Yellow brown ; brown No. 3 bitumen ; brown No. 
4 or 17. 

The design having been traced on to the porcelain or china, 
you take the tube of color and uncork it with care. Squeezing 
out the color from the extreme bottom of the tube, you set about 
the tenth part of its contents on your glass palette, which should 
be extremely clean. Grind it with the palette knife, (of steel or 
of ivory, according to the color), for about a minute. 



CHINA PAINTING. 113 

Sketching In. Is done with the finest pointed of your 
"brushes, dipped lightly into the little bottle of spirits of lavender, 
then filled with a little of the color taken from the edge of the 
lump, turning the brush meanwhile between your fingers to get a 
fine point. It is better still to work with the color diluted with 
water, and with the addition of a little dextrine, which gives it 
the advantage of resisting the oils. Indicate lightly the nose, the 
mouth, the lachrymals a little, as well as between the fingers. It 
will be useless to efface this sketch. 

You will then begin to paint the head, taking a larger brush 
to spread the color broadly and quickly. Still very little medium. 
Put a rather light local tint ; while the color is still wet deepen 
the tone beneath the arch of the eyebrows, the cheeks, the ex- 
tremity of the chin, and the "parts to be shaded, taking care 
meanwhile to leave out the bright lights, or those reflected, which 
should remain of the first tint, in order that the shadows may 
give an appearance of roundness. Take next a small dabber, 
with a flat top, and holding it perpendicularly, dabble lightly 
before the color has time to dry. Soften and mix well the two 
tints, keeping them distinct the while. 

Do the hair after the flesh tints have been laid on, toning the 
locks more or less. Here, however, no more dabber; on the 
contrary, the strokes of the brush must appear and mark the 
hair. 

Pass on to the drapery, and wash in broadly the principal 
shadows with a still larger brush. It will be effective to preserve 
the white of the porcelain or china for the lights of the draperies. 
In the first painting, spirits of lavender are used, so that the 
color may dry less quickly. You must not be afraid to paint the 
drapery with large strokes of the brush, the effect is all the better 
for it. Above all, let there be no harsh or dry marks ; in paint- 
ing there are no marks, but shadows and lights. 

Before retouching, the painting must be allowed to dry, and 
the medium to evaporate, and you must not work again on it 
unless, lightly placing the tip of your finger on the painting, you 



114 CHINA PAINTING. 

feel scarcely any dampness left ; some, however, must remain, 
for the color would easily be removed by retouching, if it were 
in a pulverized state. The dessication can be hastened by heat- 
ing, either at a lamp of spirits of wine, or in an oven ; but you 
must wait until the work is quite cold again before resuming. 

The first painting must be taken great care of, and kept very 
clean. While it is drying, it should be placed out of the reach 
of dust and damp ; if it be a plaque, place it in a flat box with 
a proper lid to it, shutting hermetically. 

M. Lacroix's colors being perfectly well prepared, we will not 
dwell upon the disadvantages offered by the former badly ground 
colors. The inexperienced beginner used to put too much 'fat,' 
or too much spirits of lavender. In the former case the painting 
crazed in the firing ; it was lost. With too much spirits of lav- 
ender the colors ran ; fled in the firing. Therefore there must 
be no excess, but the three mediums must be used with manage- 
ment and discretion. 

When you retouch your painting, before the first firing, you 
must model by retouching with flat tints, and you must do it 
very soberly, very lightly, not to remove what is underneath ; work 
almost dry, that is, without much soaking the brush in the spirits 
of turpentine. If the color does not spread easily, the brush is 
wetted with the least possible quantity of oil of turpentine, a drop 
of which has been poured on the palette. Spirits of lavender are 
of no use for this second performance. 

To finish "the monochrome completely, it is necessary to stipple 
the shadows, using very little rectified spirits of turpentine. If 
the beginner will master thoroughly the shadows of the original, 
she will not find it more difficult to paint in monochrome than 
to reproduce a drawing either in black chalk or in stump ; the 
brush will take the place of the stump or chalk : the only diffi- 
culty that can arise being in the use of the mediums, and in the 
lack of time for allowing the painting to dry. 

I repeat it again, for it is of great importance, that with the 



CHINA PAINTING. 115 

colors of M. Lacroix one can work almost dry, once the palette 
has been set. 

When the work is finished, it is submitted to the firing, either 
at home, (by the Gabelle process), or at a decorators. According 
to the result obtained, the parts which lack vigor are retouched. 

In general few raised lights or reliefs are employed. Yet in 
accessories, they heighten advantageously the brilliancy of the 
painting. The paint for raised lights is taken from the palette 
in a particular way ; the brush must lift up a lump of color at 
the point, that it may be laid on the easier. Raised lights are 
placed on small flowers, on jewelry, pearl necklaces, etc. A light 
in the eye is often marked with permanent white, but it should 
be used ii great moderation, and placed at the second firing. 

Photographs from casts, medals, bas-reliefs, afford excellent 
models for copying in monochrome painting. Copies of photo- 
graphs on oval plaques are done with red brown, heightened with 
bitumen. Raphael's female figures 011 plaques for sconces, are 
copied in light grey, retouched with brown grey, on a ground of 
very light carmine No. 1. 



PAINTING THE HEAD IN COLORS ON PORCELAIN. 



( ET on the palette, at intervals of about an inch, some ivory 
yellow, yellow brown, flesh No. 1, flesh No. 2, light grey, 
brown 108, blue-green, and the other colors. 

The drawing having been traced with chalk, you proceed 
'to sketch it in,which should always be done in the same color 
as the object. For the flesh take some flesh No. 1 at the 
tip of your brush, and indicate very lightly the outline of 
the eyes, the nostrils, the corners of the mouth, and the ears ; 
but above all, take care not to make a line all round the face, 
as the effect produced in the firing would be exceedingly bad. Paint 



116 CHINA PAINTING. 

likewise the face, the neck, and inside the fingers, but especially 
not on the side of the light, which must detach itself by the local 
tint only. 

With the ivory knife mix one-third flesh No. 1 with two-thirds 
ivory yellow ; this forms the flesh color for the local tint. Pre- 
pare also a little yellow brown for the reflected lights. These 
two tints are to be applied almost simultaneously, one next to 
the other. Commence always from the top of the head, and 
only when the sketched outline is dry, otherwise the local tint 
will remove it. This tint must be laid on very thin ; apply it 
quickly with precision and without deviation of the brush, that 
is, without discontinuation of tint ; look at the china sideways, 
and if the color is deficient in any place remedy that at once. 
Finally, the tints are made even by dabbing, and the flesh color 
is gently blended with the yellow brown by means of a very small 
fitch brush. 

For faces high in color, yellow browns should be used with the 
reds, and some violet of iron. 

While the first tint is still wet, and before dabbling, the flesh 
color should be strengthened with some flesh No. 1 beneath the 
arch of the eyebrows, the cheeks, and the lower part of the chin. 

Cast shadows are commenced with yellow brown, and retouched 
with brown 108. Strong shadows are made of violet of iron, and 
the edges of blue-green and light grey. 

Paint the lips with flesh No. 1, retouch with No. 2, but above 
all, let there be no outline either to the upper or to the lower lip, 
nothing but a soft, flat, pale tint, strengthened a bit for the 
shadow. 

Blue eyes are made with sky-blue and a minimum of blue- 
green, retouched with blue-grey. Brown eyes, with yellow brown 
retouched with sepia or bitumen. The pupil, raven black. The 
sparkle is left white, or is laid on with a dab of permanent white. 

Fair hair is begun with ivory yellow. The shadows are made 
with yellow brown, and brown 108 graduated, and they termi- 
nate with grey and bitumen. 



CHINA PAINTING. 117 

Colored draperies are begun like the draperies in monochrome s 
a flat general tint touched up again at once with the same tint 
to give strength to the shadows. There is nothing prettier than 
pink drapery shaded with blue, and yellow shaded with pink or 
capucine red. White drapery is begun with an extremely light 
grey, mixed with green. Whites are reserved, that is, the greatest 
possible part of the china is left bare without paint to form the 
lights. 

The beginner will do well if she paints a subject with several 
figures in it, to ascertain which colors throw back, and which 
bring forward. In the foreground, light colors; white, pink, 
light blue, lilac. In the middle ground, blue, green, purple and 
red are used. For the background there are dark blue, brown 
and dark green. 

The ground is made with ivory yellow (for the lights), bitu- 
men, grey, and a little violet of iron. Trunks of trees are begun 
with yellow-grey, greenish-grey, and bitumen. 

The palette, set complete for figure subjects, includes the fol- 
lowing colors: Chinese white, sky-blue, light sky-blue, dark 
blue, deep ultramarine Victoria blue, blue No. 29, (special for 
porcelain scales on earthenware), brown No. 3, bitumen, brown 
No. 4 or 17, yellow-brown, deep red-brown, sepia, light carmine A, 
carmine No. 2, deep carmine No. 3, light grey No. l,grey No. 2, 
neutral grey, russet or warm grey, silver yellow, permanent yel- 
low, ivory yellow, (47 of Sevres), yellow for mixing, (41 of Sevres), 
crimson lake, raven black, iridium black, yellow ochre, purple 
No. 2, crimson purple, deep purple, capucine red, flesh No. 1, 
flesh No. 2, deep flesh, orange red, grass green No. 5, brown- 
green No. 6, dark green No. 7, deep blue-green, deep chrome 
green, apple green, sap green, violet of iron, light violet of gold. 




118 CHINA PAINTING. 

STYLE OF BOUCHER, FLOWEBS, FRUITS, BIRDS, AND 
LANDSCAPE ON PORCELAIN. 



STYLE OF BOUCHER. 

fy paint the style of Boucher (Cupids) you begin by trans- 
ferring your design on the china. 

Then you sketch with flesh No. 1 the lines of the face, 
and the fingers and .toes. When this sketch is dry, the reflected 
lights are marked with yellow-brown, mixed with ivory yellow. 

The local tint of flesh color is laid on immediately after, the 
same as in the preceding lesson ; the dabbling evens the two 
colors placed side by side, and blends them one into the other. 
Let it dry, then heighten by half a tone the extremities of the 
hands, feet, knees, etc. Sketch in the hair and accessories, the 
clouds and background, while the local tint is drying. 

Retouching. "When the first painting has lost nearly all its 
moisture, return to it again ; work the shadows by stippling some 
brown No. 17, mixed with sepia, yellow ochre, light grey, and a 
touch of blue-green for the transparent parts. Where the flesh 
is brown, the reflected lights are made with yellow ochre through- 
out, and the scale of browns is more used. A touch of violet of 
iron warms up the shadows, and approaches nearer to Vandyke 
brown in oils. 

Flowers. To paint flowers well it is 
necessary that the drawing should be ex- 
ceedingly correct and sober in its lines, 
for the tints having to be very light and 
very pure, too many pencil marks would 
injure the painting. The little details of 
the petals are done with the brush, with- 
out previous tracing. The pencil must 
only mark the leaf's contour aud central 
vein ; the direction of the brush strokes 
is enough to indicate the smaller veins. 




CHINA PAINTING. 119 

A general rule for the manipulation of the brush in flower 
painting may be laid down thus : The handling is always done 
the way of the petals, converging towards the center. 

Leaves. Each plant possesses a particular kind of leaf, and 
even in the rose the leaves of different varieties are not alike. 
Thus, for the leaves of the Bengal rose, a semi bright tint, a shiny 
appearance without many veins, the young shoots tinged with 
carmine, or else purple mixed with silver yellow. The king's 
rose : the leaves of this rose are of a darker green than the pre- 
ceding ; they are done with grass green No. 5, the edges of the 
older leaves become somewhat russet, the young shoots light 
green. Red rose : the leaves deep green, heightened with brown, 
the veins dark green No. 7, the serrations carmine red, the fad- 
ing leaves have a reddish brown hue. Yellow roses : shiny leaves 
inclining to blue-green, retouched with grey, inked with grass 
green ; the deeper tints made with dark green No. 7. Do not 
use this last color too freely. 

Leaves have a direction, to paint them properly you must begin 
them from the top, that is, from the stalk end. Half the leaf is 
painted at a time, from the principal vein to the edge, making 
the brush twist in such a manner that the brushmarks and 
ridges done in the handling may represent the secondary veins. 
The leaves of bulbs are painted from the top downwards ; so are 
the leaves of heartsease. The leaves of nasturtium are made 
almost of a flat tint, converging to the center, which is a light 
spot ; their color is a very light blue-green, shaded with grey. 

You must not be afraid to mix purple or carmine with green, 
to shade foliage. 

Fruit. This style is done indiscriminately on 
porcelain, earthenware, enamel, and faience. It 
is very easy ; the essential point is to match well 
the different shades of color, and to lay them one 
over the other while they are still wet. The soft- 
ener flattens them and helps the tints to mingle. 
Leaves are not dabbled, nor are the stalks. 




120 



CHINA PAINTING. 



To describe in detail the manner of painting divers fruit would 
take too long, and would, in truth, have very little interest. We 
shall limit ourselves to one example. 

PAINTING OF A PEACH. Flat yellow tints, graduated into 
green, and mixed with grey in the shadow. Dabble carefully. 
Be careful to add more oil to the red part, which is softened af- 
terwards very easily with a dabber, and red blending freely with 
its neighboring color from the effect of the oil. 



Birds. On fa- 
ience birds look 
very well. They 
are also done on 
porcelain to imi- 
tate Saxony ware. 

There is noth- 




ing particular to 
be said about bird 
painting. With 
regard to fancy 
birds, the merit 
consists in the ser- 
vile copy of an- 



cient and exotic types. Good examples of natural birds are not 
scarce. General information sufficient for the use of the colors 
will be found in our lessons. 

Landscape. Landscape is not traced; it is drawn very 
lightly, so that the pencil may form no obstacle to the painting. 

This is how the painting is proceeded with : On a square 
ground-glass slab of moderate size set your "palette" with green 
tints, in the following order : yellow for mixing, yellow ochre, 
apple green, grass green, chrome green, blue-green, brown-green, 
dark green, sepia, bitumen, violet of iron, etc. Take care to 
leave a space of about three-quarters of an inch between each 
color, in order to be able to mix them, for they ought not to be 
used pure ; the effect would be bad and inharmonious. 

Commence by the sky, using sky-blue and excessively light 
ultramarine ; the lighter parts of ivory yellow, also very thin, and 
the distance blue -green, with the slightest touch of carmine. 
Skies are to be done with a very large brush, and the mixing of 
blue and yellow, which would produce impossible green clouds, is 
to be avoided. Skies are worked from left to right j they are 



CHINA PAINTING. 121 

washed in very rapidly, covering also the place for the trees. A 
dabber may be used after. 

The sky being dry, the trees are massed. Inasmuch as light 
tints would disappear in the firing if they were put beneath dark 
colors, fresh tints of apple green are commenced first, which are 
retouched or darkened at once before dabbling. When these 
tints have been laid and are dry, the foliage is done by manipu- 
lating the brush from left to right with little strokes close together, 
to imitate the leaves. Autumn tints are preferable to greens 
that are too bright. You obtain them by sepia and the ochres. 
Trunks of trees, light grey and sepia. Branches, bitumen. For 
strengthening touches use violet of iron. 

Houses, ivory yellow mixed with grey ; shadows, violet of iron. 
Ground, the lights of ivory yellow, and sometimes yellow ochre ; 
shadows, bitumen ; strong tints, brown mixed with black. Water 
is done with very light blue-green, retouched with grey, and occa- 
sionally revived Avith fresher green to reflect grass or trees. 

Strengthening touches are given at the second firing, and a 
glaze is passed over the tints altered in the first firing. 



DIRECTIONS FOR PACKING DECORATED CHINA, 

When it has to be shipped away for firing. 

Have the work perfectly dry ; if necessary, drying in oven, 
which may alter the color, but firing will restore that. Wrap 
each piece separately in fine paper, and pack in a box large 
enough to admit sufficient excelsior straw or paper to keep all 
steady, particularly the corners. Allow good layers at the bottom 
and top of the boxes. By sending directions in the box with the 
china, its prompt return is assured. In giving instructions with 
the china, be explicit as to pieces requiring gilding, and amount 
desired. Prices quoted on list refer to simple lines only. Gilding 
costs extra. 



CHIKA PAINTING. 



FIKING GENERALLY DONE TWICE A WEEK. 



AVERAGE PRICES FOR FIRING DECORATIVE WARE. 



Gilding inclu'd, 25, 30 & 35f 

" " $1.50 

" 1.00 

" " 20 to 25^ 

" $1.50 to $2.00 

" 20 to 50^. 

" 50 to 75^. 

" 5(V to $1.25 

20 to 75. 



1 Cup and Saucer, 15, 20 
6 " " (1? pieces), 75. 

1 doz. Individ'l Butters, 50 to 60f 
Plates, single, 10 to 15^ 

1 doz. Plates, $1.00 to $1.25 

Pitchers, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50^. 
Fruit Dishes, 25 to 50f 

Covered Dishes, 25, 50 and 75^. 
Placques. 10, 15, 20, 25 to 50f 

Tiles, 6x6 10 

Tiles, 8x8 Ifijd 

Plates Banded in any tint desired (Gilding inclu'd), per doz. $3.00 

Other pieces according to size and- amount of Gilding. 

Ladies who wish their China gilded must clean the edges of 
the same. 





TERRA-COTTA PAINTING. 



* 





ENAMEL PAINTING ON TERRA-COTTA. 



r iKST outline with a lead- pencil the subject 
to be painted ; if tracing is preferred, use 
tracing paper, and transfer the design/ 
upon the article, by means of a colored! 
transfer paper. The terra-cotta is now im-1 
mersed in water ; when thoroughly saturated, 
take it out, and with a soft sponge absorb all 
'the superfluous moisture. If, during the process of painting, 
some of the parts become too dry, moisten them with a flat 
'brush dipped into water. 

Have on hand a sufficient quantity of white enamel powder, 
;and with a glass muller grind this upon a ground glass slab until 
perfectly smooth, with water, adding a little gum water (dissolved 
;gum arabic), until it assumes the consistency of cream. Apply 
this to the surface to be painted, going over it a second time, so 
:as to cover the tint of the ware. The enamel should be put on 
heavy enough so that it appears raised from the flat surface, 
*being careful to spread it on very evenly, that none of the parts 
are coated lighter than others of the design. Enamel will stand 
firing several times, and such parts not brought out sufficiently 
can be restored by retouching the same, and subjecting the ar- 
ticle to a second firing. 



124 TERRA-COTlA PAINTING. 

If the design is to be in natural colors, these are painted over 
the enamel after having been fired, proceeding in the same man- 
ner as in china painting. Some colors will bear mixing with the 
enamel before firing ; in such case the dry enamel colors (China) 
are used, thoroughly mixed with the white enamel. Steel grey, 
neutral grey, blues and yellows are among the colors that bear 
mixing. The first three are best adapted for mottled or clouded 
backgrounds, if such are desired. The glaze contained in the 
colors and enamel when vitrified by firing, produce the effect of 
Limoges ware. 

For ornamental work the relief enamel colors can be used suc- 
cessfully in the way of bead work, as well as in the entire design, 
they being already mixed in a powder state, consisting of about 
twenty-four different tints. 

In doing larger pieces, where a quantity of color is used, the 
former instructions are to be preferred. If vases are decorated, 
intended for use, the inside should be washed with a mixture of 
enamel and color to give it a glaze, and thus prevent the outer 
decoration from being injured by the penetration of liquids. 

Before taking the article to be fired, place it where it will be- 
come thoroughly dry, as it cannot be fired in a moist state. The 
Barbotine ware, which has lately come into the market, can be 
effectively decorated in the above manner. 



OIL PAINTING ON TERRA-COTTA. 

Upon terra-cotta of a light tint the design is drawn with a lead 
pencil ; upon that of a dark tint, use the colored impression paper. 

Place the article between piles of books, or fill a box with sand, 
and lay or stand it into this in the position required ; see that the 
right arm rests upon an even plane with the article to be dec- 
orated. 

A terra-cotta medium is made from a small quantity of gum 



TERRA-COfTA PAlHTlKG. 125 

arable dissolved in water, to which is added a little syrup ; go over 
the entire article with a flat brush dipped into the medium ; when 
dry, repeat the wash. The article is now ready for the oil 
colors. Mix these with flake white, and use McGuilp instead of 
turpentine ; lay the colors on fairly thick, and let them dry for 
some hours, then tint and finish with the colors necessary, with- 
out the flake white, but still using McGuilp. "When finished and 
quite dry, varnish with best copal or mastic. 

The artist should have at hand two or three fine oil brushes, 
a flat brush, and the necessary colors. Those being indis- 
pensable are the following : black, burnt light ochre, terra di 
sienna, Indian red, and flake white. 

The artist is reminded that vases of antique shape look best 
when decorated in antique designs. 



WATER-COLOR PAINTING ON TERRA-COTTA. 

Outline or transfer the subjects as before mentioned. Moisten 
the terra-cotta, and absorb the superfluous moisture with blotting 
paper. Mix the colors with Chinese white, and use with them the 
terra-cotta medium already mentioned. For the blues, yellows, 
carmines, and the bright colors, coat the parts thickly with 
Chinese white, using plenty of medium ; when quite dry, add the 
pure, bright colors. Wash them carefully over the white, mixed 
with medium, in order not to rub the latter up, which would les- 
sen the effect. When finished and thoroughly dry, varnish with 
copal or mastic. 



BURNING IN, 





^MINERAL DECALCOMANIE.& 





A NEW AND BEAUTIFUL ART OF INSTANTLY TRANSFERRING 

PICTURES TO CHIXA AND OTHER WARE TO IMITATE 

EXACTLY THE MOST BEAUTIFUL PAINTING. 




I 

ECALCOMANIE lias now been successfully before the 
public for a number of years. The above is still a 
later invention, and never before brought to the mar- 
ket. It has long been a question whether the durability 
of a transferred article, particularly on glass, porcelain, 
china, etc., could not be improved upon. This has at last 
been accomplished, and the choicest designs are now like- 
wise printed with mineral or china colors, thus meeting a de- 
mand often made. Articles ornamented in this manner, and 
after going through the regular process of burning in, will be 
found as durable and impossible to deface as those painted by 



MINERAL DECALCOMANIE. 127 

hand from the celebrated potteries of Europe. By this, the art 
of Decalcomanie is brought to perfection. 

DIRECTIONS. 

1. Place the mineral subject which you wish to transfer (about 
ten to fifteen minutes before being used), between some blotting 
paper slightly moistened. The object of this is to give flexibility 
to the paper, which thus moistened will give itself easy to the 
object, either concave or convex, on which you desire to transfer. 

2. Cover the object to be decorated with a coat of Vitrifiable 
Varnish, about the size of the design, with a flat camel's-hair 
brush ; leave it to dry a few minutes, that is, until the varnish 
is nearly dry, and be careful to lay on the varnish as thin and 
even as possible, nor leave any spots bare. The varnish may be 
applied to the picture instead of the ware. 

3. Press the picture on in a uniform manner, and rub at first 
witli a clean piece of linen, then, with the handle of a tooth 
brush, or ivory handle of an infant's brush, or any smooth ar- 
ticle suitable in shape, rub constantly for several minutes, until 
the entire paper assumes a polished appearance. 

4. Place the transferred object in a pail of water, until the 
paper detaches itself, or can be removed without any difficulty. 

5. Pass gently a soft brush, dipped in water, over the trans- 
ferred picture, in order to remove the preparation off the paper. 
Press down the blisters of the picture with a soft pad made of 
silk or linen, instead of the above manner, if preferred. 

6. Now lay aside the decorated article for twenty-four hours, 
to get thoroughly dry, and be careful in keeping it out of the 
dust. 

This being all done according to directions, your work is now 
ready for being burnt in by the furnace. The burning in pro- 
cess for which the work is now waiting, is only to be accomplished 
in a china burning establishment. 

Materials Required. 1. One flat camel's hair brush. 2. Vial 
of verifiable varnish. 3. Vial of clarified spirits. 



123 



WIN ER.VL LlECA LOOM A X I E. 



Designs go by numbers, as follows: 

301. Upright Flower Bouquets, 3x4, 30 on sheet $2 .10 

330. Scenes, Landscapes, 2x2j, 35 on sheet 1.50 

351. Roman Heads, 2x2%, 36 on sheet 3.60 

355. Celebrated Painters' and Female Heads, 2>x2%, 20 on sh. 3.00 

557. Ladies' Heads, small, Ix J^, 144 on sheet 2 .40 

401. Children scenes, Watteau style, 2x2%, 42 on sheet 2 .40 

417. Ladies' .Heads, oval, 2%x3}, 20 on sheet 2 .40 

502. Flower Bouquets, assorted, 64 on sheet . . 2.40 

505. Children's Heads. 1x1^, 168 on sheet 2.40 

507. Roman Heads, 3x2, 36 on sheet 2.40 

508. Females, 4x3, 16 on sheet 2.40 

509. Female Heads, 2x2^, 42 on sheet 2.40 

510. Monkeys, 3x3>, 20 on sheet 1.80 

511. Roman Heads, one color, 48 on sheet 75 

512. Round Fruit Pieces, 5x5, 16 on sheet 2.10 

513. Classical Statuary Figures in groups, 6x9j^, 6 on sheet.. 1.80 
515. Deers, full size, 15 on sheet 1 .80 

Oval Fruit Pieces, 3x3^,36 on sheet.. 2.10 
Bis. Oblong Fruit Pieces, 3x3) and 




, 30 on sheet 2.10 

Bis. Children's Pieces, 3x3 >, 18 on sheet 2 .40 
Children in squares, 3x4%, 12 on sheet, 2.40 

Chinese in groups, 6x4, 10 on sheet 1 .20 

BirtJs in squares, 2x2^, 24 on sheet 2.10 

Oval Flowers and Fruit Pieces, 5x2^, 

22 on sheet 65 

Garland of Mosses, Roses, etc., assorted. 

28 on sheet 2.10 

Etruscan Figures, Emblems, etc., 31 on 

sheet , .' 3.00 

Female Busts, 4x5, 10 on sheet 2 .40 

Oval Landscapes, 5J^x4, 9 on sheet 2.40 

Children's Hoads, 2^x3%, 21 on sheet, 2.40 
Fantastic Warriors and Females, as- 
sorted, 14 on sheet 2 .40 

Female Busts, 3x3^, 21 on sheet 2.40 

Figures in Groups, ass't'd, 8 on sheet.. . 2.40 

The above designs are all to be burnt in on crys- 
tal, porcelain, etc., and cannot be used any other 
way. 



PRESERVATION OF 




NATURAL FLOWERS. 




WRITTEN ESPECIALLY FOE THIS WOBK BY THE FIRST PREMIUM PRESERVER 
OF FLOWERS. 




' 'Twas a lovely thought to mark the hours, 

As they floated in light away, 
By the opening and the folding flowers, 
That laugh in the summer's day." Hemans. 

[HERE are five distinct methods for preserving natural 
iflowers, and no one method can be given proper for 
varieties, and all families of the floral kingdom. 
Annuals, flowers of quick growth, of a succulent na- 
ture, cannot be preserved in their natural state. 
Balsams require the elaborate chemical method, and 
all flowers resembling the balsam require the same 
specific treatment To preserve flowers as they should 
be preserved, a thorough acquaintance with all five methods is 
desired. These, in combination, form one perfect system, which 
requires lessons and experimental practice. 




130 PRESERVATION OP NATURAL FLOWERS. 

There was a process patented, and practiced for some years, 
which was found, after a year's time, that the flowers grew dark, 
spotted, and were a distressing souvenir. This was the 

Hot Water System. All flowers of a fibrous, woody na- 
ture, are susceptible of preservation. The fibrous nature of the 
wood enters into the composition of the flower. 

Roses, camelias, japonicas, tube roses, and azalias, also carna- 
tion pinks, (white), were preserved in boiling water, as below : 

Take a few crystals of oxalic acid, pour on them boiling water, 
perhaps a pint to a half dozen crystals, thoroughly dissolving the 
crystals ; after separating carefully with the sharp point of a fine 
moulding pin the flower petals, drop them into the boiling water, 
each flower separately replace it over the fire and let it boil a 
few seconds, watching and removing each petal as soon as the 
waxy substance of the flower is gone, and the transparent fibre of 
the petals remain. Coat the back of the petal with sheet wax, 
pressing it down until incorporated with the fibre, and put back 
the flower precisely as it was taken apart, using a wax bud for 
the foundation of the flower, and using cotton covered wire for 
the stems. 

At the Centennial Exposition held at Philadelphia in 1876, a 
white transparent camelia attracted my attention. Being pos- 
sessed of every receipt in the known world, and some of my 
formulas being combinations resulting from experiments under 
the instructions of the celebrated chemical professors at Leipzig, 
I requested permission to examine this flower closely, and to do 
so, was obliged to get special permission. This camelia was 
transparent, clear, pure, without flaw, and close examination 
showed it to be a composite of several different flowers, all of the 
same variety, done by the hot water system, and instead of wax 
on the back, varnished with a fine transparent white spirit var- 
nish. These flowers look well for a while, but I do not commend 
its general use. It will do where the flowers are to be worn in 
the hair, or on the breast, for a few times only, but after a year 
they grow discolored, spotted, and are unpleasant souvenirs. 



PRESERVATION" OF NATURAL FLOWERS, 131 

The Sandwich Island Process. In the Sandwich Islands 
the ferns are preserved green and fresh for months by those who 
sell collections to visitors of the Islands. These are prepared 
carefully, and picked in a dry atmosphere, (remember, that is in- 
dispensable to good preservation), the fronds selected perfect in 
shape, brilliant in tint, and fully seeded. The fern fully spored 
is in its prime. The paper used for pressing should be an ab- 
sorbent, not letter paper, or any satin surfaced or calendered 
papers. The collector should carry the book to the ground, and 
not depend on bringing them home in a botanist's case, or heated 
by hand bringing. You must pick them dry, and place them 
directly in the book, bringing them home only in that manner. 
Arrived home, roll a small bit of cotton batting around the cut 
end of the stem, and seal the end over with red sealing wax, leav- 
ing as small a wad of cotton and wax as possible. Then transfer 
the ferns into another fresh book of papers, changing them every 
morning and evening until dry. The warmer the books are kept 
the greener and fresher the ferns after drying. Then ferns can 
be used ten years after pressing, cutting off the waxed end and 
setting the ferns into water, they will in twenty-four hours, fill 
out again and look like freshly picked ferns. 

A preserver of flowers said once to me that ferns could not be 
kept green by any known process. This Sandwich Island process 
is splendid, and' a complete success. 

By dissolving benzoic acid in alcohol one oz. to a pint, coloring 
with aniline green, shaded up by mixing brown or black and yel- 
low, all anilines, and dipping old ferns, browned by time, the 
ferns can be used for decoration, in hanging baskets, or on the 
window curtains, but they do not bear close examination. The 
coloring matter is perfectly perceptible on close inspection. 

The Sand Drying Method in preserving small flowers is 
good, and no process is complete without the addition of this 
important part of the instruction. It is within reach of every 
lady, and the flowers so dried will retain their colors a long 



132 PRESERVATION OF NATURAL FLOWERS. 

time. To every 25 Ibs. of fine glass blower's sand add 1 oz. of 
spermaceti and 1 oz. of calcined borax, thoroughly mixed and 
incorporated \vith the sand. The sand must be kept perfectly 
dry, the flowers must be dry, and from all flowers where the 
honey gathers at the bottom of the cup, it must be removed be- 
fore the sand bath is attempted. This is a delicate operation, 
and effected by the use of a crotchet hook, with a little cotton 
batting twisted around the point. Introduce it delicately in the 
flower, remove the honey, dew-drop or water drop, and your 
flower will preserve dry, in shape. 

Sweet alyssum, daisies, candytuft, can be beautifully preserved 
and keep their freshness for a long time, under the sand drying 
process. Some flowers need a varnish before the sand bath, some 
need to be varnished after removal from the bath. All labiate 
corollas, all flowers cup shaped, should be first stuffed delicately 
and carefully *with cotton batting before putting them into the 
sand. This knowledge is obtained only by a regular course of 
instruction, as the family of flowers, or the floral kingdom is so 
extended. After preparing the flowers, (all flowers should stand 
after being plucked a short time, their stems immersed in cold 
water, so as to give full life and strength to the flower, and if it 
is to be varnished it should be done while standing in the 
water), have ready your sand in a box with^a draw bottom. This 
bottom is drawn out after the process is completed, leaving the 
dried flowers intact in the box. 

Fill your box partly, with sand perfectly dry, without mixture, 
clip off the stems to within an inch of the flower cluster, and dip 
it into hot sealing wax, sealing up the end of the stem carefully 
and thoroughly, then immerse the stem in the sand up to the 
flower cluster, taking care to space between the flowers no two 
touching. After filling your flowers in the box, commence 
by pouring in softly and gradually the sand prepared for them. 
Cover them perfectly, and set the box in a dry place, where no 
dampness can get into the sand. A single drop of water, or a par- 
ticle of sup, will ruin the whole of the box of flowers. 



PRESERVATION OF NATURAL FLOWERS 133 

Iii some white flowers a little chloride of lime mixed with the 
sand can be used once, but as soon as the lime slacks it must be 
removed. Flowers require from two weeks to thirty days in an 
even heat of 80 degrees, not more. As soon as the process is 
complete, pour off carefully the sand from the flowers, and if 
found to be brittle, expose them a few hours to a dry atmosphere. 
The ordinary atmosphere of the room will be all that is required. 

For the five methods combined, regular lessons are required, but 
it is not necessary for any excepting those who desire to make floral 
preservation a business. The sand drying can be followed by any 
lady for winter bouquets, and the usual flowers of the garden, 
beautifully preserved in this method, for winter decorations, 
hanging baskets, etc. Jardiniers are a lovely winter ornament, 
with green ferns floating, one could not tell but what these flowers 
had just been plucked from the garden. 

The Last Process is : Clip from the bush, without injur- 
ing the stem, the buds just as they are opening, allowing two or 
three inches of stem with each bud, and immediately cover the 
ends with hot sealing wax. When cold, wrap them up in cotton 
batting, separately, and lay them away in a cool place in a box, 
where nothing can rest upon or injure them. 

At any time you wish to make use of them, bring them forth 
from the place of concealment, cut off the end containing the 
wax, and place the stems in a vase of cool water, containing a 
little salt. Allow them to remain in a moderately warm room 
for a few hours, and you will perceive the buds commencing to 
expand and open, and soon after you can have the opportunity of 
beholding a full-blown rose, representing all those beautiful 
colors with which nature has so wisely endowed it, and sending 
forth, in all the sweetness and purity of its nature, the most 
loving and fascinating odors, which is so much desired and 
sought after by lovers of flowers. 

These flowers in winter command exceedingly high prices, so 
much so that some are making it a business of preparing them, 
and are making money by the operation. 




PAPER-FLOWER MAKING, 




THE ARRANGEMENT OF BOUQUETS, MATERIALS USED, ETC. 
I 




UCH of the success in maKing paper flowers depends 
on the quality of the material, and the form of 
the pins, moulders, pincers, etc. 

The paper should be carefully selected, refer- 
ence being had principally to its color and texture. 
As a rule, it cannot be too thin, and must be soft 
and strong. Avoid highly glazed papers, except- 
ing when such a flower as the peony is to be copied. 
In passion-flower and fuchsia there is a thickness 
of texture only to be imitated by placing a sheet 
of thin waxed muslin between two sheets of paper. 
For many flowers, especially roses, a shaded paper 
is used, so colored as to allow of its being doubled, 
that A number of petals may be cut from it, leaving the dark 
shade in the part required. Many flowers will need painting, 
and for this purpose powder color is employed, using it with a 
tinting brush, a separate one being kept for each tint. Many 
flowers, such as tulip, geranium, picotee, etc., require a second or 
third shade of color ; for these, moist or transparent colors are 
to be used, violet, lake, carmine and sepia being most useful, but 
for a complete list of colors the reader is referred to page 142. The 



PAPEB-FLOWER MAKING. 135 

moist colors must be applied with a sable brush. They should 
all be mixed with water, in some cases adding a little gum, 
for the purpose of more completely fixing the color on the paper. 

Avoid using the powdered color too wet ; it should resemble a 
thick paste on the palette. Sometimes use the color dry, rubbing 
it on with the finger, but this only on rare occasions. 

Several kinds of wire will be wanted, seme flowers having soft 
and some stiff stems. In some not many a very light spring- 
ing stem is necessary, as for poppy ; fine soft wire for the stems 
of fuchsias, etc. I am led to insist on particular attention being 
paid to the stems being imitated carefully, as so many otherwise 
good specimens have been spoiled by having stems hard looking 
and unlike the natural flower. 

"Wire covered with cotton is generally used, also fine steel wire 
for the tendrils of passion-flower, or for the light and graceful 
stem of the common field poppy. 

Floss silk is useful ; this must be fine, strong, and soft. It is 
used as a fastening to many of the petals, to nearly all the leaves, 
and when a joint of many stems is to be formed. 

Black tying wire, for greater strength and larger work, is some- 
times necessary. 

Gum water is used for fastening the work together ; this must 
not be too thin. 

The proper tools will be found at an art store, both as regards 
size and form, numbering from 1 to 8, but practice alone will 
enable the learner to judge which is best suited, some finding a 
large, some a b^all tool the more effective. 

The pincers aio required to arrange the petals of a flower, as 
for a rose, clove, etc. 

Scissors adapted to cutting the paper, having a nipper-like 
contrivance at the bottom of the blades for cutting the wire. 

As nearly all the leaves will require some painting, to give them 
a warmer or more natural tint than is to be found in those usually 
purchased, mix a small quantity of the proper color, use it with a 
tinting brush, and having carefully painted over the surface of 



136 PAPER-FLOWER MAKING. 

the loaf, leave it to dry, then hold it to the fire ; or should a glossy 
appearance be required, as in a camellia leaf, the polishing brush 
must be used. 

To obtain the pattern of a natural flower, proceed thus: 
Select one or more petals, as the case may require. Take a gera- 
nium, for example ; this has two sizes, so that one of the large, 
or painted petals, and one of the smaller, will be required. Place 
these on a sheet of thin cardboard, trace round the edge with a 
pencil, then cut out to drawing, allowing a little additional length 
for fixing them. Mark on each the number necessary for the 
flower. 

In some cases petals are cut in a circle or star, as in clove, 
rhododendron, or passion-flower. This is done by getting one 
petal traced on paper, as above directed, then cutting the required 
number for it, and so arranging them on the cardboard as to 
represent, as in the passion-flower, a star of five. Take for 
example a 

CRIMSON RHODODENDRON. 

This most effective flower should be made thus : Select about 
twelve petals, gum the edge, draw over edge, let them dry, then 
gum the small bulb at base of pistil and stamens (called the 
"heart,") pass the stem of this through the opening of petals, 
draw down tightly, and let remain for a few minutes to dry, cover 
the stem with pale green paper, slightly bend the pistil and sta- 
mens that they may incline towards the central petal of the 
flower. A piece of strong wire about nine inches long is required 
on which to mount the flowers and leaves ; arrange three flowers 
on the top of this with their backs to each other, leaving the 
flower stalk about two inches in length, tie this with silk, roll a 
little stem paper round and then place on three scales, cut from 
palest brown stem paper ; other three flowers should be placed 
between those already fixed a little lower down. This order of 
arranging the flowers to be observed until the truss of flowers is 
complete. Cover the stem with brown stem paper and arrange 



PAPEK-FLOWER MAKING. 137 

the leaves, beginning with the small ones in the same manner as 
directed for the flowers, only that each leaf should be a little 
lower down than the last ; they will require coloring, and for this 
use burnt sienna and Prussian blue, applied with a tinting brush, 
afterwards using the polishing brush ; this will give them the 
gloss observable in the natural leaf. Many of the rhododendrons 
are made of plain colored petals, but their beauty is much en- 
hanced by spotting them ; the process is simple, and the direc- 
tion for one will do for all, only varying the color used. Select 
the crimson with dark spots. Take in the hand a stamped 
flower, and having mixed some carmine, take a tinting brush and 
apply to the three uppermost petals, taking care that the color 
becomes lighter towards the edge and deepening towards the 
center. Now mix a little violet (moist) with carmine, and mark 
the spots as desired ; this must be done with a small sable brush. 
White rhododendrons spotted with yellow and brown, or lilac with 
green spots, make very striking varieties. 



WHITE CAMELLIA. 

For this flower use white tissue paper of medium thickness ; no 
other paper will so nicely imitate the texture of this well known 
flower. 

Cut from a pattern, to be obtained as before directed, (which 
may be purchased when the flower is out of season), the proper 
numbers of petals ; place each set or size separately on the hand, 
deeply curl the edge with the same pin used for the rose, and then 
press down the center with the steel stem, so as to give the deeply 
indented vein seen in the center of each. The larger petal will 
require turning on the fingers previous to using the stem of the 
pin, so as to cause the edges to turn backwards. 'Tis well here to 
remark that while you use the head of the pin on the edge or other 
part of a petal placed on the palm of the hand, always place 
the petal on the fingers when the stem of the instrument is to 
be used. 



138 PAPER-FLOWER MAKING. 

The stem of cotton wire No. 2. On this roll some pale-yellow 
\v;ix ; make it about the size of a small plum stone, the three 
smallest petals so placed that the edge turns inward and the 
points meet, leaving the base of each petal just touching the wire 
stem ; three of the next size must now be placed on between the 
preceding, slightly raised. It is found that the most expedi- 
tious method of fixing the petals of this flower is to take a small 
piece of white wax, as large as the head of pin No. 2, used as a 
wafer, only without being wet. Place this at the bottom of each 
petal, it will then only require carrying to its place and firmly 
pressing with the finger or point of the ivory pin to make it ad- 
here ; this is both quicker and more easily performed than with 
gum water. The three following sizes may be arranged in the 
same order, and each set standing higher up and spreading open 
as the petals increase in size ; all the remaining petals placed on 
in rows, gradually getting them to bend over, so that the last 
stand at right angles with the stalk ; the calyx cut from pale 
green stem paper, thickened by the use of wax, this requires the 
edges to be curled, so as to give a rounded appearance. The 
edges should be shaded with brown, which may be applied with a 
small sable brush; a bud placed close to the flower, and some 
good dark leaves being added, we have one of the most perfect 
representations of nature to be obtained in paper. 

ROSE. 

(Gloire de Dijon.) 

Cut from pale yellow shaded paper, petals Nos. 1 (the outside 
petal) and 2, and from shaded paper of a lighter shade, but 
having pink in the middle of the stripe, so placing the pat- 
tern on the paper as to bring the pointed end of it to the darkest 
part of the paper, and so fold it as to allow of eight petals being 
cut at once. Sixteen of each size will be required. Cut off a 
proper length of the medium cotton wire, bend over the top of it 
several times, so as to make a head to it about the size of a pea, 



PAPER-FLOWER MAKING. 139 

on this tie a few of the proper stamens, and around it roll a small 
quantity of pale green wax. All the petals should be treated as 
follows, as a preparation for other moulding. Take eight petals 
of a size, place them on the palm of the left hand, so that they 
can be held in their place by one of the fingers of the same hand, 
holding in the right hand pin No. 1, so that it may revolve easily 
round the edge of the petals, held as described in the other hand. 
The object of this rolling of the edge is to overcome the hard or 
unnatural look of the paper, and is essential as a preparatory step 
to all other modeling. This done, turn the bunch of petals, 
press them in the center with the finger, after which roll over all 
parts of it excepting the edge, with the head of pin No. 2, tins 
will leave the edge of the petals turned backwards, and this 
moulding must be continued until sufficient roundness has been 
obtained. 

Separate the petals. This is best done from the points, so as 
not to disarrange the form already given to them. Take five of 
the smallest petal?, place each on the hand as before described 
separately, and with the head of pin No. 2, indent it deeply down 
its center, beyinnitir/ at the top, so as to curve the petal, that when 
placed on the foundation already prepared they will curl over and 
nearly conceal it. 

These must be tied on with silk. To form the groups of petals, 
take two of the smallest, and three of the next size ; the smallest 
place in front, the larger behind, and so arrange that each petal 
should be slightly elevated above the one in front of it ; hold 
them together by the points, and then open the petals from the 
top, so as to be able to insert the end of a fine gum brush ; a mere 
spot of gum is all that is required, as much as possible in the 
center of the petal, so as to leave the edges perfectly free. 

Place this bunch of petals on the hand, as before directed, and 
round it in the same manner, only not to the same extent. Five 
or more of the bunches or nests of petals are required. Each 
should be placed in its proper position, and tied with floss silk. 
The two next sizes of petals must be treated in a similar manner, 



140 PAPER-FLOWER MAKING. 

and placed on behind the bunches already fixed, so as, in fact, to 
give to the center of the flower the appearance of being divided 
into five or more divisions. 

Petals No. 3, require the same rounding as applied to the pre- 
ceding, two or three being placed together, giving them a more 
open form ; fix these round the petals already on. Elevate them, 
so as to produce the cup shape observable in nearly all good roses. 
As the petals become larger, the thumb is found more convenient 
than the finger, it more quickly produces the round ness on which 
the beauty of a rose so much depends. The larger petals must 
be treated in a similar manner, only the edges require to turn 
back with more freedom and boldness, and the petals gradually 
receding, so that those placed on last will stand nearly at right 
angles with the stem, in some cases being even more bent back- 
wards. Two or three of the last may be slightly shaded with 
green at the base, and carmine and burnt sienna at the edge, so 
as to give the faded appearance of the outer petals. Frequent 
reference should be made to the illustration of the flower or its 
parts as the work proceeds ; the calyx should then be passed up 
the stem, so as to fit close to the back of the flower, and the stem 
covered with pale green stem paper. 

Add a bud or two. These should appear close under the outer 
petals of the flower. The leaves start from the junction of these 
stems, being set round, each a little lower than the preceding. 
They should be colored and polished as directed in "general ob- 
servations," to give them the bold and waxy appearance seen, in 
this daservedly popular and beautiful rose. 

PINK FUCHSIA. 

(Duchess of Lancaster.} 

Place a sheet of pale yellow waxed muslin between two sheets 
of pale pink shaded paper. So arrange the pattern as to bring 
the points to the white, and the darker shade of color to come to 
about the center. Cut the four petals from deep cherry paper, 



PAPER-FLOWER MAKING. 141 

made thick as before described. The sepals, to be placed on the 
hand, and with the head of pin No. 2, gently roll from the points, 
so as to produce a number of faint lines, and also to unite the 
paper and wax firmly together, giving at the same time the proper 
transparency and gloss. The petals require considerable working 
with the large pin, to give them the roundness necessary after 
they are formed. They will require shading with a mixture of 
carmine and "magenta," put on with a large tinting brush, the 
color being almost dry. The pistil made of a large Avhite seed, 
which must be attached to a piece of fine cotton wire. About 
two inches from the edge of pistil roll round some wax or cotton 
wool, then add eight stamens. These will not be as long as the 
pistil ; they must be shaded with pink ; top of pistil of a pale 
green color. Stamens may have a small quantity of white pollen 
on them ; and this being finished, fasten on with a small quan- 
tity of wax the four petals, and then tie them with silk. The 
neck of the flower can be made either of wax or wool, the former 
being the best. The four sepals having been properly bent, are 
now placed on, great care being taken in forming them perfectly 
on the neck before mentioned, which, if it is made of wax, can 
be done by rolling over each petal as it is placed on with stem of 
ivory pin ; but should wool be used, the petals must be fastened 
on with gum. 

ARRANGEMENT OR GROUPING OF FLOWERS. 

The lighter flowers, both of form and color, should be so placed 
as to be at the top, excepting such flowers as passion flower, 
fuchsia, etc., which are drooping or climbing plants. 

Aim at simplicity in coloring rather than too great a mixture, 
which gives a confused look. 

The foliage is used as a background ; there should be no stint 
of this. The great fault observable in the arrangement of 
bouquets, whether natural or artificial, is that they rarely have 
the leaves brought ;is prominently forward as they should be, con- 
sequently the bouquet loses both character and elegance. 



142 PAPER-FLOWER MAKING. 

Ferns, of which there is now so large and beautiful a collection, 
add very much to the elegance of the bouquet. 

EXAMPLES IN GROUPING. No. 1, Roses. Gloire de Dijon, 
apricot ; Geant de Bataille, scarlet and purple ; Aimee Vibert, 
small white ; pink cabbage ; forget-me-not ; maiden hair fern. 

No. 2. Rhododendron, crimson ; red spotted do. ; deep pink 
do. ; pale do. ; white do. Some large ferns and orange azaleas 
of various shades. 

No. 3. White camellias ; red camellias ; pale yellow azalea ; 
pink fuchsia ; deep blue cineraria ; ribbon grass. 

No. 4. Passion flower (various) ; fuchsias ; thuubergia ; hop ; 
ivy leaves. 

LIST OF MATERIALS, TOOLS, &c. 

Moulding pins, moulders, pincers, tinting brushes, scissors, 
three sizes of cotton wire, silk for tying, fine wire for tying, 
gum water. 

COLORS IN POWDER. Carmine, burnt sienna, Prussian blue> 
ultramarine, chrome 1, 2 and 3, white, magenta, violet. 

MOIST COLORS. Carmine, lake, violet. 

The papers most used are: White tissue, carmine, pinks 
(various), shaded for roses (various), stem paper (green and 
brown), violet, 3 shades, yellows, scarlet for poppies, etc. 





T. 



FRENOi 



A BEAUTIFUL AND PEACTICAL PKOCESS 



:POIES 



LEATHER, SILK AND OTHER FABRICS. 




IT is simple to perform, durable, and very effective. 
The designs are printed in colors, upon paper so 
prepared that after they are cemented to the sur- 
face of the article intended to be decorated, by 
simply dampening the back of the paper, it may 
be at once and entirely removed, and the finished 
work exactly resemble painting; nothing but the 
colored designs remaining upon the work. 

Suppose that a white earthenware or porcelain 
plate is the object to decorate : Take the design, 
and after having cut off the larger portion of the 
margin of the paper, pass over the colored design, 
rith a fine brush, a slight coat of Fastening Varnish, being 



144 THE FRENCH ART. 

careful to cover the whole of the design and not go beyond the 
outlines. When the varnish has partially dried, or has become 
"tacky," which will happen in five or ten minutes, place the var- 
nished surface in the position you wish it to occupy upon the 
plate, and then press it well down with the roller ; then take a 
damp piece of cloth or sponge and press well the back of the pic- 
ture, (if you were decorating a curved surface, such as a vase, the 
ivory knife may bo used for the purpose), and allow it to remain 
for a minute or two, then thoroughly wet the back of the design 
and raise the paper with the hand evenly and carefully. Now 
wash the picture, which is transferred as gently as possible with 
the water brush, to remove any soil; this done, carefully press 
the work with a piece of fine linen slightly wetted, so as to absorb 
the water and nearly dry the design, this prevents it from blister- 
ing and causes the work to dry flat and evenly. Then after 
having left it at least one day, apply a coat of retouching varnish, 
and the work is complete. 

To Decorate Silk and other Delicate Fabrics. Apply a 
coating of fastening varnish, and allow it to dry, then with the 
water brush, wash the paper surrounding the design carefully; 
this removes from the paper the preparation which would other- 
wise soil the silk ; now apply a second coat of the same varnish, 
and when this has slightly dried, place the design upon the silk 
or other fabric to be decorated, and with the roller press it well 
down. With the watjr brush wet the back of the paper covering 
the design and the paper may be at once lifted off. 

Another Method. Cut out the design carefully and cover 
it with a thin coating of fastening varnish, and allow it to dry, 
then lay it upon the silk or other fabric, and roll thoroughly ; 
dampen the back of the paper with the water brush, and lift it 
off as previously directed. 

To Decorate Articles of a Dark Color. In decorating 
Japanned goods, or any dark material, it is necessary to take the 



THE FRENCH ART. 145 

prepared pictures covered with white lead or gold back, and fol- 
low the directions as before. Should there be any design you 
wish to remove, or any spots of varnish accidentally dropped 
upon the article decorated, you can easily remove it by applying 
the clarified spirits. 

A few of the many articles which can be easily and advan- 
tageously decorated. Vases, trinket stands, and other ornaments 
in white china, with or without a border of gold ; tea or coffee 
services in china, earthenware, or Bohemian glass ; dessert ser- 
vices, flower pots and boxes, candlesticks, urn and jug stands, 
carriages, sleighs, wagons, furniture, tinware, and many other 
china articles which have been made expressly for decoration by 
this art ; white wood articles, straw dinner mats, silk or cloth 
sofa cushions, scent bags, slippers, hand screens, fans, ribbons, 
articles in ivory, book covers ; indeed it is difficult to say what 
ornamental article may not be thus decorated, from the panels of 
a room to the tiny articles of the dressing table. 

To the house decorator this art offers a complete substitute for 
the costly process of hand painting for panels of rooms, and other 
portions of his work which require artistic embellishment. 

As to. the choice of subjects, of course that must be left to in- 
dividual taste. The variety is large, comprising flowers, birds, 
figures and landscapes, of all dimensions and iti every style, the 
beautiful products of Sevres, the works of modern artists, and 
inlaid woods. 

The brushes may be easily cleaned with a little of the clarified 
spirits, as well as any accidental spots of the varnishes upon the 
dress, 

As all designs are covered with gold, or plain, the latter will 
show on a Avhite ground only, and are mostly used for ladies' 
work. The covered designs will show on any ground, dark or 
light, and are principally used for manufacturing purposes, such 
as tin, woodenware, etc. 



WAX ART. 



FLOWERS 




AND FRUIT 



WITH INSTRUCTIONS FOR 



MAKING THE WAX AND MOLDS, MATERIALS USED, ETC. 




AX ART was supposed to have reached the 
height of perfection many years ago, but since 
the invention of the various machines for cut- 
ting and molding designs into form from wax, 
the rapidity with which the work is executed, 
and the endless variety of artistic productions 
in wax art, it is evident perfection has not yet 
been reached, and we are led to believe it sus- 
ceptible of attaining a still higher degree of 
excellence. The reason of its being taught so 
little during the past few years is owing principally to the fact 
of its simplicity since the use of molds and cutters, so artistically 
arranged that the form of any desired leaf or flower may be 
chiseled out at will, from the varieties of colored wax before you. 



WAX AKT. 147 

Nothing in fancy work excels the art of making Wax Flowers 
for interest, amusement and fascination. Only a few tools are 
required. A good'eye for colors and a little taste in arranging 
them. There are t\ro distinct methods. First, 

By Molding Them. All tabular flowers must be made by 
molds, viz : Calla lily, lily of the valley, iris, morning glory, 
scarlet cypress vine, stephanotas, and all other flowers tubular or 
labiated. A good set of wooden molds, carved carefully, is the 
best, but any lady can prepare her own molds in the following 
matjner. Get your flower fresh as possible, and stand it in water 
to give it perfect strength. Fix a little pasteboard box, or any 
small cup shaped box ; prepare these yourself with strips of paste- 
board, some larger or smaller, just according to the size of leaf or 
flower you intend to mold from ; mix the finest dentists' plaster 
paris, (practice alone can perfect one in the proper consistency), 
and pour it into the flower, having enough mixed to fill it and 
cover every little part of the flower, let it remain until hard, tear 
off the flower, and you have a, perfect mold, every little vein and 
impression perfectly taken.* With a sharp knife trim off all 
ragged edges and superabundant plaster, leaving yoxir mold small 
as possible, and lighter to handle. These leaf molds are much 
better for all uses, even for sheeted wax flowers, than those metal 
molds that cut the wax, and never give the fibrous look needed 
for a natural looking leaf. The lily of the valley needs a wooden 
mold, the flower is so delicate a plaster mold cannot be made. 

Preparation of the Wax for Molded Flowers. These 
recipes are of the times of our great grandmothers, who kept a 
few bees in their gardens, making honey from the fields of sweet 
clover, the apple and other fruit blossoms in the spring of the year, 
and buckwheat patches in the summer. The wax was brown, 
and they bleached it by melting it, clarifying it by selecting the 
whitest, running it off in thin sheets, and lay ing it in the hot sun 
to bleach. All bleacheries do this on a larger or smaller scale, 



148 WAX ART. 

After bleaching the wax white as muslin, you can make your 
parlor mantel ornaments of it. 

Keep a set of tin cups for your different tints of wax, your 
white cup being the largest. 

To Mold a Calla Lily. Have ready a basin of hot soap 
suds, strong as possible of soap, and hot, so that your lily will be 
smooth, not lumpy or bubbly. Melt your wax by setting the tin 
cup in boiling water, as glue is melted. To every pound of white 
wax add a tube of Winsor & Newton's flake white paint, dis- 
solved and thoroughly mixed with one tablespoonful balsam fir, 
or Venetian turpentine, and half table spoonful of dissolved gum 
mastic, the whitest possible. This is a good recipe for sheeting 
wax for your own use, and will be given below in preparations 
for sheeted wax flowers. 

Your liquid being thoroughly mixed in two cups, your white 
and yellow chrome cup, the yellow prepared exactly like the 
white, only yellow chrome paint substituted for the white tube 
paint ; your molds all prepared by standing soaked in the hot 
soap suds, you commence with the yellow cup, dipping your 
spadix mold, or the center of the lily, in the yellow cup, making 
as many spadix as you wish to make lilies. After finishing dip- 
ping spadix, you take your white cup and large mold, dipping 
once and letting it cool a moment, and then immersing the 
second time, to give a double thickness to the heavy portions of 
the flower. 

A hundred lilies can be molded in an hour. 

The stems of wire can be prepared next. Fasten the spadix 
to the stem, and slip the stem through the hole at the bottom of 
the molded flower, then with a brush dipped in the hot green cup 
solder the whole together, spadix, stem and flower. 

All molded flowers are made exactly alike. All tools dipped 
first in hot suds for every flower, after in the hot wax. It is well, 
as a rule, to make all white flowers first afterward, the colored 
flowers, 



WAX ABT. 149 

All variegated flowers are painted with a brush, using Winsor 
& Newton's moist water colors. All yellow flowers, like Thun- 
bergia, spadix of lilies, etc., by dipping in the yellow cup. A 
scarlet cup for scarlet flowers, blue for blue flowers, rose colored 
for roses, Naples yellow for sofrano and tea rose tints. 

All roses and double flowers are made of separate petals molded 
and joined together afterward. 

All large leaves should be molded, and all small leaves, all 
dipped in the green cup. 

Your green cup is made of all your refuse colors melted to- 
gether, and the tube green tint added. Never use any darker 
tubes than No. 1 chrome green. Your olive and other tints are 
made by the refuse tints thrown in from the drippings of red, 
yellow, purple, and odd tints. 

Directions for Sheeting Wax. To every pound of 
bleached wax, after dissolving thoroughly in an outer crucible of 
hot water, add 1 oz. balsam of fir, or Venetian turpentine, in 
which dissolve a little resin, white or rnastic. If white wax 
is desired, one and one-half tube Winsor & Newton's flake 
white paint should be added yellow, orange or rose, and just 
what other tints are fequired. All sheeted wax by machine is 
first molded into square blocks or bricks^ and the machine slices 
off the sheets. But these machines are expensive, and no lady 
cares to have one who only makes wax flowers for pleasure. 

Green wax is made from the drippings of all the other tints, 
and from the yellow unbleached wax, with green tube paint 
added. 

After preparing your cup of melted Avax, have ready a plaster 
mold made on a tea saucer or tea plate. Dip your mold in hot 
soap suds, for flower molding, and with a small ladle pour 
over its wet surface the melted wax, trimming off the sides and 
making even sheets, remelting the clippings and resheeting it. 

A wooden spaddle size of ordinary sheet wax is sometimes 
made, and used instead of the plaster mold, called paddle ivaz, 



150 WAX ART. 

and a great many teachers use a bottle, dipping the bottle, and 
forming wax thin at one end, thicker at the other. Either 
phister, wood or glass must be dipped in the hot suda between 
every dipping in hot melted wax. 

Wax Fruit is made in molds, and is always used with the 
paints in preparing the crude wax, and painted afterwards with 
dry powder paint. 

Almost all molds for Wax Fruit should be made in halves 
pears in three pieces and some fruits require the mold in sev- 
eral pieces. Unless the molds are perfect the fruit will be de- 
fective, and nothing can make it beautiful when it is once 
molded wrong. 

Your fruit should be perfect, and in making your molds care 
should be taken that there are no open places or leaks in the 
molds. Grease your lemon, apple, orange, or whatever is to 
be molded, well first in every part. Have ready your pasteboard 
cup, made a trifle larger than your fruit, nearly filling your cup 
with the plaster, mixed with cold water to the consistency of 
pound cake unbaked. Your fruit being oiled, be very careful 
to sink it down just half in the dissolved plaster. If you do 
not get in half, or if you sink it in more than half, you will have 
an imperfect mold, and your fruit will be defective. A little 
care makes it perfect 

As soon as the plaster is a little hardened, with a pen knife 
make four holes in the outer plaster rim, not touching the fruit. 
These holes, half an inch deep, are to hold the top of your mold ; 
lock it into the lower half, blosv off all loose pieces of plaster, and 
when completely hardened, oil the top of the fruit and the new 
half plaster mold, and the holes for the locks ; then prepare the 
second half. Be sure and have your plaster fresh and strong, 
when thoroughly mixed to the same consistency as the first, pour 
over the fruit into the pasteboard cup, and even it all over. 
Leave it standing a good half hour, then remove the pasteboard 
Cup, and if the mold seems hardened, carefully open it, being 



WAX ART. 151 

careful not to break off the locks, for upon the perfection of these 
consists the perfection of the fruit. 

In a basket of fruit, lady apples are beautiful, crab apples, 
Seckle pears, Bartlett pears, a lemon, an orange or two, Califor- 
nia plums, t\vo peaches, and grapes are desirable. Two pounds 
of wax will make this elegant variety. None of the fruit should 
be large all small, high colors, and perfect in painting. 

After preparing your set of molds, prepare your wax, as be- 
fore directed, and there should be twelve gill, or half-pint cups 
kept ready for this work, with the different tints. A small 
sharp pouring spout on each cup is a great help. The half -pint 
cups being generally used for apples, peaches, pears, oranges and 
lemons ; the plums, cherries, and little fruits are made with the 
gill cups. 

All fruit makers, master*, will tell you to be very careful and 
not get too deep tints ; for a lemon use common lemon chrome 
paint, dry ; orange, orange chrome, dry, and after making those 
two fruits, you make from the same cups your apples, peaches 
and pears, because the solid, clear color is needed first, and after, 
you can paint them to their natural tint. 1st, Lemon. Match 
the color of the wax to the lemon you imitate. Dry patent pow- 
dered yellow, gives a splendid lemon tint. 

After melting and tinting your wax, two cakes for one lemon, 
have ready your mold remember that every mold must be 
soaked in hot, strong soap suds have the upper half ready to 
put on as soon as your lower half is filled with the hot wax. 
Pour in the even half of the mold with the melted wax first. 
Kever allow any to slop over the edge. Place on the upper 
half immediately and lock closely together, holding them clasped 
and turning them gently over and over, keeping every part in a 
slow, steady motion until the liquid sound has all ceased. About 
ten minutes is needed to every piece of fruit the size of a lemon 
or an orange. 

Let them stand inside the mold for some time, opening very 
carefully. If your meld is perfect, very little trimming will be 



152 WAX ART, 

ivt|uired. With a sharp penknife remove overy trace of the rim 
where the fruit mold joined together, and wash off with ben- 
zine, rubbing a little dry powder over the lemon to give it a fresh 
picked appearance, and painting the stem end with water colors. 

Orange is made precisely like the lemon, only orange chrome 
is used instead of lemon. 

Apples are made from the lemon cup or the orange cup, with 
a little green chrome added to vary the foundation tint, and after 
molding, trimming and washing off with benzine, paint red with 
dry carmine, producing a splendid effect. 

Peaches molded from the lemon cup, or orange, according 
to the tint required. The fault with fruit-makers consists in get- 
ting too deep a color in the cup, or melted tint, and that always 
produces the coarse effect of the fruits usually displayed. Peaches 
should be molded of a very delicate foundation tint, first 
trimmed while hot from the mold, as little rubbing as possible 
on them, painted hot, and after the carmine cheeks are rubbed 
on, (dry powdered carmine being used), white flock should be 
rubbed all over them, to give them the soft, downy effect. 

Plums are painted with ultramarine or indigo blue added to 
the carmine. 

Grapes are made over glass globes, blown for the purpose, first 
stemmed, then dipped in green or purple wax, and bloomed over 
witli corn rneal (sifted on them). 

The California grapes are easy to imitate, for the green wax, 
after dipping, simply needs a little carmine painting outside. 

No cross, piece of statuary, or vase, can ever be taken from 
the molds unless the molds are made in a number of pieces. 
After running the body of a cross, there must be a standard 
through the upright before it hardens, to support it. Pour the 
lower part on afterward. 

Molds for Leaves, consisting of a great variety of beautiful 
formations, from almost every tree or shrub in nature's garden, 



WAX AKT. 153 

Among the number you have to select from are : Oak, maple, 
myrtle, lily of the valley, ivy, willow, currant, cherry, grape, 
orange, strawberry, blackberry, chestnut, etc., etc. 

Wet the molds before placing them in wax, to prevent them 
from sticking. It will require but a little time for you to become 
familiar with the method of cutting and molding the leaves and 
flowers, and by the aid of your good judgment and exquisite taste 
you may soon be able to arrange in form almost any leaf or 
flower you may desire to see produced in wax. 

Wires. The wire used for making the stems and branches 
is covered with silk or cotton, and of different colors, and can be 
had in coils or by the spool, each spool containing from twenty 
to twenty-five yards. Paper wire comes in bunches. Silver wire 
on spools or in skeins. 

Steel Molding Pins. The molding pins are used for mold- 
ing and changing the wax leaves and flowers into form desired, 
before placing them upon the stem. They are made of steel, 
with glass and porcelain heads. Sizes run from 1 to 8. 

Moss can be had by the package, or small sprig, for moss 
roses. 

Miscellaneous Articles. Glass shades, glass balls for imi- 
tating currants, grapes, cherries, and other fruit, small sable 
brushes, and dry or liquid colors for tinting. 

The Wax, consisting of a great variety of colors, you can 
purchase by the sheet. The size of a sheet of wax is 3|xo inches. 

Having given those who desire to do wax work an outline of 
the art, with the materials used, and the method of applying 
them, I leave the rest with the learner, who requires taste for the 
nrt, and perseverance to acquire excellence, 



SPRINKLE WORK 



FOR THE BEAUTIFUL DECORATION OF 



WDDD AND CHINA ORNAMENTS, 




N idea of turning the standard accomplishments 
of the day into a remunerative, as well as an 
agreeable occupation for one's leisure hours, 
has in the past few years so asserted itself in 
the refined female world, that the study of 
wood painting, and etching with the pen, as 
well as the production of sprinkle work, are 
now all much sought after. 

There is no other handiAvork that offers such 
enjoyment, to those possessed of a sense of the 
beautiful, as the different methods of wood decoration. While 
the study and practice requisite in difficult etching, and the dec- 
orative embellishment of useful articles with stylish ornamenta- 



SPKINKLE WORK. 155 

tion, makes one an acknowledged artist, so through the medium 
of sprinkle work, with the ever new and beautiful effects to be 
produced by the aid of pressed leaves and flowers, or by the sim- 
ple method of painting bouquets and landscapes upon wood, 
there is endless scope for the taste of the amateur. 

Sprinkle work upon wood, the subject of this article, is easily 
acquired. In the manipulation of the materials required, good 
taste is all that is necessary, although a knowledge of drawing is 
of great advantage. Besides the possession of the necessary 
utensils for the production of sprinkle work, one should not fail 
to secure a rich assortment of leaves, grasses and flowers, adapted 
to the purpose. A walk in the country in the early spring or 
autumn will provide one witli a goodly quantity of lovely mate- 
rial ; or suitable specimens can be procured from some neighbor- 
ing florist. There are so many fancy articles prepare,! for this 
work, upwards of a thousand, that it is well to have a great 
variety of leaves, grasses and other designs, such as figures, 
initials, monograms, mottoes, arabesques, butterflies, etc., cut 
from paper, so that one can produce from the simplest to the 
most elaborate arrangement. 

The pressing and drying of leaves is so well known that we 
need not refer to it here, but it is well to select leaves of perfect 
form, as the correcting of deficiencies sometimes destroys the en- 
tire work. The leaves best adapted for this work are : Ivy, oak, 
clover, geranium, rose, myrtle, gentian, maple, edelweiss and 
ferns, avoiding the thick, fleshy foliage plants. 

It is advisable for beginners to arrange their designs upon a 
piece of wood or paper beforehand, to judge of the effect. 
Bouquets are appropriate for the smaller articles to be decorated, 
wreaths for larger or round pieces. For those more advanced, 
Konewka's silhouettes are recommended. AVith these and the 
addition of a little painting, highly artistic effects can be 
produced. 

Utensils. The necessary utensils can be procured in com- 



156 SPRINKLE WORK. 

plete outfits, neatly arranged in cases of different sizes. The 
contents are as follows : One wire sieve, with handle, one coarse 
painting brush, one fine painting brush, three hundred pins, one 
small pair of pincers, several china saucers, one tube prepared 
Vandyke brown, one drawing pon, one Herbarium with artificial 
leaves and space for the preservation of natural leaves and flow- 
ers, one envelope containing initials, six models of leaves. 

In working with the sieve and brush, an irregular distribution 
of color is mad almost impossible. The principal colors used 
in sprinkle work are the following : Prepared sepia, Vandyke 
brown, black, and dark green. A mixture of black and brown 
will produce quite a number of shades. The colors used are 
water colors, specially prepared, and come either in tubes in a 
moist state, or in cakes which require moistening. Great care 
should be taken not to get the color too thick. 

Process of Sprinkling on Wood. After the materials, 
leaves, etc., requisite for the work have been selected, take the 
article to be decorated and score it gently with a small quantity 
of powdered pumice stone, applied with a flannel pad, this frees 
it from any roughness or dust that may have come upon it 
through handling or transportation. Next take a clean cloth, 
and wipe all the powder off. Now prepare the color to be used 
in a small porcelain saucer, above all, being careful it is suffi- 
ciently diluted to flow freely, not muddy , about the size of a pea 
taken from the tube is sufficient quantity of color to a teaspoonf ul 
of water. The dried leaves or designs are then fastened to the 
wooden article, by means of pins ; this proceeding must be care- 
fully carried out, the points, sides and stems must be well secured, 
and lie perfectly flat upon the object. In wreaths, the stems 
should be so arranged that they come together in the center, in 
order to accomplish a pretty ensemble. Now take the sieve in 
one hand and the brush in the other, dip the brush lightly into 
the diluted color, that it may not be too heavily charged with the 
color, press it gently upon a piece of paper, and let it glide back 



SPRINKLE WORK. 157 

and forth over the sieve, holding the latter in a horizontal posi- 
tion above the object. In this manner a fine shower is produced, 
which is kept up until the proper shade is acquired. Blots, and 
where the color has run together, should be removed immediately 
with blotting paper. 

The final arrangement of the wreath should be such that 
the leaves and grasses which extend out furthest, and are to 
have the darkest shade, should be fastened last, over the others, 
so that they can be first and more easily removed with the 
pincers. After the top layer of leaves, etc., has been removed, 
where spaces are now perfectly white, the design should be ex- 
amined, whether any of the others have been displaced, proceed 
with the sprinkle work as before, and remove from time to time, 
the leaves in such a manner that those which are to be left en- 
tirely white, are left to be removed last of all ; the others are 
removed first, according to the shade required. The spaces of 
those removed last are also spattered, but very lightly, so that 
they may not be too glaring. 

The beginner will no doubt content herself to produce only 
such work in one shade; with more experience a variety of 
shades may be attempted. Those having more practice will not 
be satisfied with these alone, but after the bouquet or garland is 
finished in different shades, will by means of carefully spattering 
the separate leaves, seek to bring out a fine shading and thereby 
produce a more perfect work ; in this case, the entire design, 
with the exception of the part of the leaf to be shaded, must be 
covered with paper, after it is perfectly dry, so that the color is 
not distributed further than the part desired. Through this 
later and more difficult work the whole is brought out with a 
plastic effect from the surface, while on the other hand the sepa- 
rate layers of the leaves removed would appear flat and monot- 
onous in their extensions. 

Lastly, the pen is taken, and what the foregoing process does 
not supply, is put in by hand, to complete the work. Take the 
same color, only thicker, and draw in the veins, and if necessary 



158 SPRINKLE WORK. 

the entire outlines, to bring out the work more boldly. This 
being linislu>d, the cleaning of the utensils should not be over- 
looked. The dried leaves place carefully in the herbarium, the 
brush and sieve wash thoroughly in water, the finished article 
allow to dry in a room (not too warm), and after a day or two 
the varnishing and polishing may take place, in order to give it, 
aside from durability and practical purpose, a more brilliant finish 
and higher value to that which has been accomplished with such 
care. 

Varnishing and Polishing. Procure a bottle of "wood 
varnish," prepared expressly for the purpose. This should be 
applied to smaller articles, as its peculiar properties make the 
polishing unnecessary. This varnish is applied by means of a 
soft flat brush, in a room entirely free from dust, and of warm 
temperature ; the brush strokes should be made from the center 
of the article towards its edges, and according to its shape. Re- 
peat from six to eight times. Flat articles more readily take 
the polish than round ones. Before putting on the separate 
coats, tiie previous one should be thoroughly dry. After the last 
coat is dry, apply a little powdered pumice stone, by means of a 
moist pad, and make the uneven places in the varnish smooth by 
rubbing. "When a perfectly smooth surface is obtained, (this 
manipulation is omitted in varnishing articles that are turned, 
because unnecessary), then apply the varnish once more in the 
same manner, for the last time, and the article will thereby ob- 
tain a glossy wood polish. This is left in a temperate room, free 
from dust, for two days, when it will be thoroughly dry and 
hardened, and ready to be turned over for the object it is in- 
tended. As before mentioned, we advise this method only for 
articles of small compass. Tables, etc., we advise to have fin- 
ished by a regular furniture polisher, for the smooth finish can- 
not be accomplished by an amateur. It is easily conceived that 
by this process really wonderful effects may be produced, when 
the artist has taste, and devotes care and time to the work. 



SPRINKLE WORK. 159 

Sprinkle Work on China. It may not be generally 
known that the same effects as produced on wood can also be 
produced on china ware, the manipulation being slightly differ- 
ent. Instead of water-colors, the ceramic or enamel colors are 
used, (Dresden or LaCroix). They come in tubes, in a moist 
state, and are diluted with spirits of turpentine, with a few drops 
of oil of anise or cloves. Those doing botli wood and china 
sprinkle work will do well to secure an extra brush and sieve, 
which are to be had separate from the outfit boxes, and use these 
for the mineral colors only. The leaves and grasses are fastened 
by means of dissolved gum arable, being careful to scrape off 
any particles of the gum that may adhere to the china after the 
leaves have been removed, before sprinkling over the blank spaces. 
When the leaves are placed upon the article singly, and the de- 
sired shade is produced, lay it in a warm place, over a register if 
possible, and the leaves will come off as the gum separates from 
the ware, when the sprinkling may be resumed, and the proper 
shading given to heighten the effect. 

Veins are drawn in with a crowquill pen, but the color must 
be properly mixed to prevent it spreading. Really beautiful 
decorations can be made by using ferns and maiden hair to or- 
nament tiles, flower pots, etc. If the leaves, such as the maple, 
and others that grow bright with the first frosts of autumn, are to 
have their natural tints, the piece is taken to be "fired," which 
fastens the background, so that their colors can be washed in 
without fear of injury to the groundwork. The most useful 
colors for monochrome work in the Lacroix colors, are the fol- 
lowing: Brown, No. 4 or 17, sepia, brown-green No. 6, dark 
green No. 7, Victoria blue, and violet of iron. If the Dresden 
colors (Mullcr & Ilennig's) are used, which are preferable on ac- 
count of their rich and soft appearance, the following are rec- 
ommended : Dark brown No. 30, chocolate-brown No. 36, sepia 
No. 28, olive green No. 11, shading green No. 10, and dark blue 
No. 13. When the work is finished, take it to the china decora- 
tor and have it "fired." 



10U riMiT 1 -:::-!.:: A\v,r:x. 

It is not necessary to use the best French china for sprinkle 
work, as it is almost entirely covered with color. 

Ladies who do not paint on china, but desire something differ- 
ent from the ordinary stamped work, that is all that can be had 
in decorated ware for common use, will find this an easy and de- 
lightful way of ornamenting Ihe white ware with some favorite 
flower or fern, and so have something original, and that can be 
readily duplicated, should any piece be broken, one of the objec- 
tions to the stamped sets being the difficulty and expense in 
replacing odd pieces. 

To those affected by the odor of turpentine, we would recom- 
mend the use of Hancock & Son's Worcester moist and water- 
colors for china. 

Faience. Ivory white and other soft wares will answer, and 
the result will always be a pleasing one if a little care is taken in 
the execution of this branch of decoration. 





PEARL EMBROIDERY 




*DW ITELITET,* 




N 'Jhd imitation of pearl, nothing has yet 
presented itself so favorable to the writer 
as the beautiful and new method of pre- 
paring fish scales for embroidery. You 
may take the scales from a large size fish, 
the larger the scales the easier they are to 
handle. Lay them in salt water for a few 
hours, until quite well cleansed, after which wipe them 
clean, and place them between two sheets of writing 
paper, and lay a weight on them, allowing it to re- 
main a whole day, until they are dry and hard, when 
they are ready for further use. Now draw tho pattern 
of any favored leaf, or whatever you wish on the scale, with pencil, 
and cut it out with small scissors. If you are conversant with 
the form of leaves, you can save time by cutting out the leaf 
without first drawing the outlines. Draw in the veins of tho 
leaves next with a needle. Stretch your dark velvet tightly to an 
embroidery frame, place the pattern which you wish to copy be- 
fore you, and imitate it by sewing the leaves, one at a time, on 
the velvet with fine gold thread, and the leaf stalks and tendrils 
embroidered with the same. Wet the thread before using, to 
render it ilexible. 




FEAfiJEBM^FLOWERS, 





HOEVER may be so fortunate as to have in their pos- 
session fine feathers can certainly make fine flowers. 
Have at hand gum in solution, French paper for 
winding stems, and wire of different sizes. Draw 
the under side of the feather gently over the edge 
of your penknife to bend it in the required direc- 
tion ; make a lump of bookbinder's thick paste or 
wax on the end of a wire for a stalk, and begin 
your flower by sticking the smallest size feathers 
into it for a center; place other feathers of the 
same kind, but larger in size, around in order. 
Choose green feathers for leaves and calyx, and pure white ones 
for japonicas and white roses. Twist the ends of the same on a 
wire, and make fast with gum, glue, paste, or other similar ad- 
hesive substance. Be careful to select feathers of the same kind 
for the same flower. Arrange in a vase, and cover to keep free 
from dust. In this, as in all kinds of fancy work, let taste and 
neatness govern the process. 

It will often be found necessary to color the feathers to give 
the desired variety of hues; this can easily be done by at- 
tending to the following directions r Put the 'feathers into hot 
water, then drain them ; rinse two or three times in clear cold 



FEATHER FLOWERS. 163 

water ; place them on a tray, over which a cloth has been spread, 
before a good fire ; as they dry, draw them gently into shape be- 
tween the thumb and finger. 

To DYE FEATHERS BLUE. Into about three cents' worth of 
oil of vitriol mix as much of the best indigo in powder ; let it 
stand one or two days. When wanted for use, shake it Avell, and 
into a quart of boiling water put one tablespoonf ul of the liquid, 
Stir well, put the feathers in, and let them simmer a few minutes. 

YELLOW. Put a tablespoonf ul of the best turmeric into a quart 
of boiling water , when well mixed, put in the feathers. More or 
less turmeric gives different shades. 

FOR ORANGE, add a small quantity of soda to the preparation 
for yellow. 

PINK. Three good pink saucers to a quart of boiling water, 
with a small quantity of cream tartar. If a deep color is required 
use four saucers. Let the feathers remain in this dye several 
hours. 

RED. Dissolve a teaspoonful of cream tartar in a quart of 
boiling water ; put in one tea-spoonful of prepared cochineal, and 
then a few drops of muriate of tin. This dye is expensive, there- 
fore use the plumage of the bird ibis. 

LILAC. About two teaspoonfuls of cudbear in a quart of boil- 
ing water , let it simmer a few minutes before you put in the 
feathers. A small quantity of cream tartar turns the color from 
lilac to amethyst. 

Bunches of orange blossoms can be made with good success of 
feathers ; the buds are to be made of starch and gum mixed ; 
the stamens of ground rice, colored with turmeric, into which the 
gummed ends of manilla grass have been dipped. 

The inhabitants of the Pacific Islands make beautiful feather 
flowers, rivaling the natural ones in delicacy and beauty. Pinks, 
orange blossoms, and roses of exquisite workmanship are often 
brought from these islands. Old ostrich feathers can be made 
to look <is well as new by holding over hot steam, then drawing 
each vane of the feather separately over a knife to curl it. 



LTT CS rp 
U fca J., 




RONZEHPAINTING 




REPABE your board for bronzing by first coating it 
over with a strong solution of size, made by dissolving 
isinglass in hot water ; strain it, and coat over with 
a flat camel's hair brush while the size is warm. 
When dry, coat it over thinly and evenly with gold size ; let it 
remain until sticky, then apply the powder bronze, with a soft 
dry brush. You may use a variety of shades of bronze if you 
wish ; pale, blush and white. Blend them together to suit your 
subject, and allow two days for it to dry before commencing to 
paint. Make a drawing of your figure on thin white paper, rub 
some white on the back of it, fit it upon the picture and mark 
over with the sharp end of a stick, pressing on very lightly ; after 
all is drawn in, remove the sketch, and mark over the outlines 
with a lead pencil, lightly. If you are copying from an engrav- 
ing, notice on which part of the building the light rests, and 
select those parts for gold, coating them over with gold size, and 
putting on the leaf gold when sufficiently dry. If there are any 
parts of your figure which you want rich colors, do them with 
gold at the same time. 



BEONZE PAINTING. 165 

The painting must now be wiped with a silk handkerchief, to 
remove all the particles of gold and dust, and supposing the 
thimble palette ready, with all the colors, first mix a pale 
tint of purple, made with Prussian blue and a little crimson 
lake, and pencil over the mountains of the landscape evenly, then 
go over the water with a very pale shade of blue. After coating 
the mountains and water once, it is best not to touch them again 
until dry. Now paint in the foliage, making the tints with yel- 
low lake and Prussian blue ; if you want them bright for the 
different shades, add burnt sienna and Vandyke brown, or both, 
as your tints require. 

Stems of trees are mostly done with Vandyke brown, and other 
tints added to suit ; faces of figures do with white and a little 
sienna, mixed together; white drapery coat over with white, 
scarlet with scarlet, and yellow with chrome yellow ; all other 
parts of the figures with white, except the parts you have already 
gilded. This will answer for the first painting. 

The second shade upon the mountain is made with a neutral, 
composed of three primative colors, crimson lake, yellow lake, 
and Prussian blue. The tone you desire must predominate in 
making all your neutrals. If you want a greenish neutral, the yel- 
low lake must predominate , if you wish a bluish neutral, the blue 
must predominate, and if reddish neutral, the crimson lake must 
predominate. Having selected your i-'hade, be sure to have it about 
the right strength before beginning, as it is difficult to avoid a 
patched appearance on the mountains with varnish color, espe- 
cially on the second and third coating, unless you are quick in 
your work. If the water requires more color, paint it in the 
darker places, then repeat the shades on the foliage, where it is 
required. 

Your figures now claim some attention. Any part you wish to 
have crimson, paint over with crimson lake, repeat it when a lit- 
tle dry if you wish it darker, and for the shades add a little blue 
with your crimson lake. Blue dresses paint with a pale shade 
of Prussian blue on white or pale gold , for the shades, paint in 



166 BRON/r. PAINTING. 

with a little stronger Prussian blue, and when you wish to make 
any of these colors paler add varnish, and when you want to 
thin it use turpentine. Green dress, with yellow lake and Prus- 
sian blue on pale gold or white ; purple dresses, with crimson 
lake and. a little Prussian blue, on white or pale gold. Any part 
of the figure you do with scarlet, shade it with crimson lake ; 
yellow, shade with burnt sienna, (pale shade). In faces, paint 
features in with Vandyke brown, and different tints with yellow 
lake, crimson lake, and sienna paled down, and repeat to suit 
the eye. 

Parts of mountains may require a third and fourth wash, if 
so, do it with neutrals mentioned above. Sometimes we heighten 
the effects of the near foliage by touching the edges with a little 
opaque color, made of chrome yellow, white, and a little blue. 
It must be done very carefully, as opaque colors are powerful, 
compared with transparent ones. If what you do shows too 
abruptly, you have a remedy by putting on a little more of the 
Irani-parent color. Parts of the figures may be heightened by 
touches of opaque color, and the faces also may require retouch- 
ing. When the painting is completed, a full week should pass 
before varnishing, and great care should be taken not to touch 
the bronze, as it will leave a stain, bronze being so delicate. 

Varnishing. In varnishing, care must be taken to have a 
clean brush, and the dust wiped from the painting with a silk 
handkerchief. Lay the painting flat, and with a one inch camel 
hair brush coat over with copal varnish, as evenly as possible, 
being caref.il to cover every part. Leave it flat down, as it is, 
for a couple of hours, or more, before removing, or the varnish 
is liable to run in streaks. Once varnishing is sufficient to pre- 
serve the painting, but if you wisli to polish it, another coat of 
varnish must be given, allowing a week between ; then after 
another week, it should be rubbed with pumice sand and water, 
In the following manner Take a piece of woolen, put it over 
cotton, to oake a rubber of it; wet the rubber pretty thoroughly 



BRONZE PAINTING. 167 

Kith water, dip into some fine pumice sand, and rub it back- 
wards and forwards on your varnished picture, carefully. After 
you have rubbed for a short tune, wipe the sand from a part of 
it, to see the progress. If not sufficiently smooth, rub again, care 
being taken iiot to rub through the varnish. When smooth, 
wash all the sand off, wipe perfectly dry, and give another coat 
of varnish, allowing the same time for it to dry, then rub again 
with water and pumice sand. When smooth, wash off the sand 
and proceed to polish with very fine powdered rottenstoue, and 
rubber made of satin or silk. Saturate this with water, and rub 
with the rotteustone for a short time, until it shines, then wash 
all off. You can make it shine by rubbing with your hand, using 
a little sweet oil and a little more rottenstone. 

When wood is used for painting on, choose that which is close 
grained, and coat over several times Arith paint, rubbing down 
with pumice sand and water. After the third coat, give plenty 
of time between eacli coat to -get dry and hard. 



GILDING. 

The part you wish to have leaf gold, cover evenly with gold size. 
Chrome yellow or white lead may be mixed in with the gold size 
to enable you to see the process. Allow it to dry until a little 
sticky. It can remain much longer than for bronzing, as leaf 
gold does not require so strong a sticking property as bronze. 
When sufficiently dry, put on the gold by means of the tip, or 
your fingers, from the gold book. Be careful to cover every part 
of the gold size with smooth leaf-gold. When all covered, press 
gently a piece of soft chamois skw, on all the gilded parts, and 
remove the superfluous gold, 




JAPANESE ART, 





[$ elegant, easy and profitable method of arranging 
autumn leaves to make beautiful household articles, 
such as flower vases, work boxes, etc. Gather yellow 
withered leaves, perfect in form, press , them between the 
leaves of a book. Hub the surface of the article to be or- 
namented with fine sand-paper, then give it a coat of fine 
black paint. When this is dry, rub smooth with pumice 
stone, then apply two other coats. Arrange the leaves according 
to taste, gum them on the under side, and press them on the 
piece to be ornamented. 

Now dissolve some isinglass in hot water, and brush it over the 
work while the solution is warm. When dry, give it three coats 
of copal varnish, allowing time for each coat to dry, and the 
work is completed. 



THE ART OF PAINTING 




STAINING GLASS, ft 





k LASS-PAINTING is not only restored, in 
our day, to the perfect fullness of its 
ancient splendor, but also has acquired, 
. through the giant strides of the science 
of chemistry, and the great progress lat- 
terly made in the arts of design, an 
amount of technical and aesthetical power 
far exceeding whatever could formerly be called to 
its aid. 

Notwithstanding this advantage, however, the art 
has not yet reached that wide state of diffusion which, 
from the exquisite effedte it is capable of producing, 
and deserves, and which it attained in the olden time, even with 
its then more limited capabilities. 



170 STAINING GLASS. 

The obstacles which, on the revival of the art, have interposed 
to check its further extension, and therefore to diminish also the 
general demand for its productions, are much rather to be at- 
tributed to those in whose hands it rests, than to anything prop- 
erly belonging to itself ; they originate in fact less in the art 
than with the artists. 

One of the principal causes of the earlier decay of glass-paint- 
ing was that its rules being based so entirely upon empirical 
principles, those who practised it were accustomed to consider 
the knowledge they had acquired in the thorny path of tedious 
and long continued experiment as their most valuable personal 
property, forming at once the means of their subsistence, and the 
foundation of their future artistical fame. They therefore not 
only kept the information they had gained profoundly secret 
during their lives, but even carried it with them to their graves, 
in preference to leaving it behind them to be made use of by 
their scholars. 

Glass-painting or staining may be defined to mean the art of 
painting on transparent glass, (either colorless or already colored 
in the process of its manufacture), with vitrescible metallic col- 
ors, which are afterwards burnt into the surface of the glass on 
which they are laid, leaving it more or less transparent. 

All colors used in glass-painting are oxides of metals, or other 
metallic combinations, They may be divided into two principal 
classes : 

1. Those whose coloring base, or the oxide, is laid upon the 
glass simply in its original combination with an earthy vehicle. 

2, Those whose coloring base, or the oxide, must be made to 
adhere by the help of a glassy body, namely, the flux. 

The colors which require a flux may be divided again into, 

1. Those in which the oxide unchanged, but only mixed with 
the flux, is attached to the glass. 

2. Those in which the oxide requires to be vitrified, by previ- 
ous fusion with the flux, before it is laid on the glass. 

The last may be called fused colors, all others mixed colors. 



STAINING GLASS. 171 

The classification before given maybe made clearer by the fol- 
lowing explanatory remarks. Glass-painting is distinguished 
especially from other illuminating processes in that the colors 
and the foundation on which they are laid must, in this art, be 
fused together in the kiln. 

Now, some few colors combine with the surface of the glass, 
at the temperature of fusion, without further previous prepara- 
tion than the simple laying on, wherefore these give to the glass 
only a coloring cementation or stain. Others, 011 the contrary, 
in consequence of their peculiar nature, can only be made to com- 
bine with the glass by fusing them upon its surface, into another 
thin sheet or layer of colored glass. This is done by means of 
the flux, a vitreous compound, which fuses more easily (i. e. at a 
lower temperature) than the foundation, the glass plate. 

The Process of Laying the Colors on the Glass. The 

manipulation and the process of laying the colors on the glass 
varies, in some measure, according to the different kinds of glass- 
painting, which therefore call for the first explanation. 

Either the colors may be laid upon a single sheet of glass, upon 
which the whole figure with all its principal colors and interme- 
diate tints are burned in (Peinture en appret) : or, 

The figure may be composed of various pieces of pot metal 
(glass already colored in its manufacture), and only the outlines 
and shadows painted on, the glass pieces giving the colors for the 
peculiar places where they are inserted (Mosaic glass-painting) ; 
or, both these methods may be combined in one and the same 
picture, by composing it partly of pieces of colored pot metal and 
partly of white and painted glass, fixed together, 

A 

Peinture et Appret. For painting on a single sheet of 
glass, the following rales must be observed. 

A pure white glass must be chosen for the purpose, free from 
air specks or bubbles, and especially difficult of fusion, as the 
whole labor would be lost if it were attempted to burn in the 



172 STAINING GLASS. 

colors upon a ground which fused as easily us themselves. It is 
practicable, as the examples of the ancients show, to paint on 
what would appear the commonest glass with a good result, pro- 
vided that it does not contain too much lead, and thereby be- 
come too easily fusible. 

Before the operation of painting, the glass plate must be rub- 
bed to a sufficient extent with pure lime, slaked by exposure to 
the air, in order to clean it perfectly. 

The ground or foundation must then be laid over the whole 
surface of the plate, which may be done in two different ways. 
Some artists simply dip a piece of clean linen cloth, or a Hat 
camel-hair pencil, in oil of turpentine, and brush the pane of 
glass with it equally over its surface , while others give to the 
whole a thin clear ground of black glass-painting color, in such 
manner as not to destroy its transparency, but at most to give it 
the form of a dead ground glass. Both methods answer the 
purpose of covering the glass with a viscous surface, which takes 
the design and the colors better than a polished ground ; the 
latter prepares the glass at the same time for the painting effects 
which are to be obtained upon it. 

In both cases the ground which has been laid on must be most 
carefully leveled over, and brought to as thin a coat as possible 
with a large hair pencil, and must be driod quickly, taking great 
care to preserve it from dust, etc. 

Tainting on one sheet requires only one pattern drawing or 
cartoon, which, however, may be used in two ways. Either the 
glass sheet, grounded and dried as above directed, may be laid 
upon tlie drawing, and the outlines, as seen through the glass, 
traced lightly with a fine pencil, and with black or other glass 
color corresponding to the ground. Or the drawing may be 
placed reversed on the sheet, and all the outlines marked ovi-r 
with a steel or ivory style. If this latter method is used upon a 
ground of simple turpentine, the back of the drawing must pre- 
viously be rubbed over with black lead, so that the traced lines 
may appear dark on the light ground. 



STAINIXG GLASS. 173 

In both cases, the drawing, whether it is placed upon or under 
the glass, must, for the sake of convenience, be fastened to it 
with pieces of wax at the four corners. 

For properly carrying out the process of laying on the colors, 
a desk or easel is necessary, which should- be capable of being 
placed in an inclined position by means of props, and should be 
formed by fixing a glass plate in a wooden frame, so that the 
light may pass through the painting. Sometimes during the 
progress of the work, the glass which is being painted may be 
removed from the easel and laid upon a sheet of white paper, in 
order better to show the effect of certain colors. 

The vehicle with which the pigments are laid on is generally 
oil. Some artists use exclusively water, but this alone is an iii- 
Bufficient medium for binding the metallic bodies to the glass, 
particularly if, as in the case of fused colors, they are somewhat 
coarse in their nature, and require to be laid on in thick layers. 
They then easily loosen from the plate before the firing, and 
render the process of laying on much more difficult. It is au 
important advantage, that with oil the edges are more sharply 
defined, and the parts already painted may be again touched over 
when dry without danger of loosening the ground. 

It must be understood that when it is wished to make use of 
water, the plate must either not be grounded at all, or only with 
a glass-painting color worked up with water. 

The most suitable kind of oil for the purpose is rectified oil of 
turpentine, somewhat thickened by standing, and to which a little 
oil of lavender is added. This preparation gives the mass the 
necessary degree of viscosity, and also prevents the color on the 
palette from drying up and thickening too quickly. 

The palette should be of thick sheet glass, ground rough by 
rubbing with a glass muller and fine sand. 

Preparatory to mixing with oil for laying on, those colors 
which require a flux must (unless a different process is specially 
indicated) be ground fine in water with the flux, and again dried. 
But the fused colors, i. e. those in which the oxide has already 



174 STAINING GLASS. 

been vitrified with the flux into the state of a transparent glass, 
should for the purpose of laying on, only be coarsely granulated ; 
for the finer these are ground the more likely is their transpar- 
ency and perfection to be impaired when burnt in. 

Those pigments which are laid on in their simple combination 
with an earthy vehicle, and without flux, as for example the yel- 
low and red colors prepared from silver, form an absolute excep- 
tion to the use of oil, and must, for laying on, be stirred up with 
Water to the consistency of a thick cream. 

The first of these three kinds of pigments should, as a general 
rule, be laid on in a thin, the latter two in a pasty, state. The 
depth of tone of the color depends, with all three, upon the de- 
gree of thickness in which the pigments are laid upon the glass. 

The laying on of the fused colors is accompanied with more 
difficulty than that of the other kinds. The latter are simply 
laid on with the pencil, in the same manner as with other kinds 
of painting, and the only care necessary is that the coat may be 
perfectly even and regular, therefore for large surfaces a wide 
smooth pencil or driver is usually employed. The colors pre- 
pared from silver must be treated differently, and laid on the 
glass at least to the thickness of the back of a knife. 

But the fused colors must be brought upon the surfaces to be 
covered in the state of a thick flowing mass, moist enough to run, 
but consistent enough to lie upon the glass. For this purpose 
small portions must be laid on and spread out with a pencil or 
small spoon, and made to flow to the circumscribing outlines, by 
inclining the sheet in the proper directions. If any part of the 
surface thus covered is required to take a darker tone of color, 
the plate must be kept for some time at an inclination in the 
corresponding direction, so that the color may thus accumulate 
thicker on that part. By this process many gradations of tone 
may be obtained from one and the same pigment. 

The remaining rules for the laying on of the pigments are 
those which principally result from the different methods of 
painting on one sheet, of which there are principally three. 



STAINING GLASS. 175 

Either the whole picture may be brought out in its outlines 
and shadows, on one side of the sheet, with black, bro\vn or gray 
color, and illuminated with the proper colors in the proper places 
on the other side. 

Or simply the manner of ordinary oil painting may be adopted 
with the glass colors, and the picture treated as by an artist in 
oil. 

Or, as is now most customary, both methods may be united? 
the artist making use of each in certain places, according to the 
requirements of the object he has in view. 

For these three methods the following common rules will 
serve. 

The shadows and dark colored outlines, and that which is cal- 
led in oil 'under painting,' should be drawn on the front side of 
the glass, or that which is turned towards the spectator. 

The illuminating colors, especially the principal ones, should 
be laid on the back or reversed side. 

Intermediate tints, and gradations by shading, should gener- 
ally be placed on the front side, but sometimes, when they alter- 
nate with each other, necessarily must lie on both , as they cannot 
be put in contact on one and the same side without danger of 
running into each other, and making a false color. 

The silver yellow and red colors, before alluded to, must always 
be placed on the back or reversed side. 

In some particular cases colors may be laid on corresponding 
places on both sides of the glass, in order to produce certain ef- 
fects by the light falling through the two together. Thus, pur- 
ple on one side and gold yellow on the other, give a magnificent 
fiery scarlet ; blue and yellow, according to their- respective in- 
tensities, give different shades of green ; the latter, again, with 
blue on the opposite side, serve for excellent distance colors. And 
finally, by the mixture of several colors, the most diversified in- 
termediate tints may be obtained, so that glass -painting in its 
present state may be brought to assimilate with oil painting in 
its power of producing varied effects. 



176 STAINING GLASS. 

Iii order to put a new tone of color on a surf ace already marked 
with outlines, etc., it must first be dried by a gentle and equal 
heat, (to avoid the warping of the glass), and again painted im- 
mediately after it has cooled. Or -the black lines first laid on 
may be at once burnt in, and where possible, with these any yel- 
low shades also which may be required, after which the painting, 
then fixed, may be further worked upon without danger of dam- 
age. The residuum of the unfluxcd yellow color may be removed 
after burning, and again used. This color, must never be put 
over any other, nor over dark shadows, unless these are previ- 
ously burnt in, but always require a carefully cleaned surface of 
glass to lie upon ; otherwise it would combine with the flux of 
the under color, whereby the earthy residuum would be fixed, 
and the transparency and beauty of the whole destroyed. 

All pigments must be laid on somewhat darker than in other 
kinds of painting, as they lose in depth by burning. 

When a pigment has overrun itj>, outline, the superfluous quan- 
tity must be removed, when dry, with a knife. 

By taking away the ground with a style of fine grained wood, 
pointed in front and smooth at the back, (a tool used in etch- 
ing), the most effective lights may be obtained. 

Should the colors not appear quite dull and dry, but shining 
and greasy, after the drying of the picture, this is caused by the 
misuse of the oil, which is always dangerous to the beauty of the 
pigments in firing. 

It is neither necessary nor advisable to allow more than one 
day for the drying of the colors ; the burning in should be pro- 
ceeded with at the expiration of the time named. 

Lastly, during the work, the greatest cleanliness must be ob- 
served throughout, the pencil and palette must be kept perfectly 
clean, and the painting preserved from dust, etc., for which 
reason it is not advisable to paint in a laboratory or melting 
room, where the presence of vapor, dust, and impurities of many 
kinds cannot be avoided. 



STAINING GLASS. I 1 }"? 

Mosaic Glass- Painting. The before mentioned rules for 
laying on the colors will apply also to the method of forming de- 
signs with colored pieces of pot metal, or partly with these and 
partly with painted white glass. It remains to say something 
more in reference to the employment of the cartoons, and the 
cutting and arrangement of the glasses in this branch of the art, 
whl:'i, however, is but little practiced, since the leaden bars in a 
picture calculated for a near view are detrimental to the eiiect. 

Mosaic glass-painting requires two cartoons. One of these, a 
finished and colored one, is used by the artist as a pattern, and 
serves to determine the arrangement of the piece of glass accord- 
ing to their several colors, and the manner of introducing the 




leaden ribs to fasten them together, according to the outlines of 
figures. Each piece of glass proposed to make part of the pic- 
ture, must be distinguished by a separate number. 

The other cartoon, which consists only of the black outlines of 
the lead jointing, and whose several parts are numbered to cor- 
respond with the first, is to be cut up in pieces according to the 
outlines, and the size of each piece diminished all round by one- 
half the thickness of the lead bar of the jointing, so that the 
pieces of glass may be exactly cut to the proper dimensions. 

The cutting of the glass may either be done by the diamond, 
or by tracing the line of division with a red-hot iron, after having 
made a small incision at its commencement, or by cutting with 
scissors under water, which, however, is not a safe process. 



178 



STAINING GLASS. 



With overlaid glass, i. e. pot metal, several sheets or layers 
laid upon each other from the frit, as for example, red and 
white, hlue and white, etc., it is possible to produce many effects 
of shading by removing more or less of the colored glass sheet, 
according to the outline, by grinding with emery. Or the col- 
ored sheet may be ground through to the white glass, and thus 
colored ornaments may be given on white ground, especially for 
the representation of damasked materials. Also, the white parts 
thus exposed may have a color given them at pleasure on the op- 
posite side, in order to produce many kinds of effects, or to avoid 
the necessity of using many pieces when the introduction of 
another color in that of the pot metal is indispensable for the 
effect required. 

The colored pot metal may be painted with intermediate tints 
of its own principal color, or even in order to produce certain 
effects, may be covered on one of its surfaces with another color. 
Thus, a fiery red may be obtained by covering a red overlaid glass 
on its white surface with the yellow silver color, and burning ifc 
in, or a shade of green by a similar use of the same pigment on 
a blue overlaid glass. In these operations the widest latitude is 
left to the talent and practice of the artist. 





GILDING THE BORDERS OF GLASS, 




IN TRANSPARENCY, ANTIQUE, 



AND DTHER GLASS FAINTING-, 




HE present art of gilding upon glass is 
an improvement on the method in fashion 
years ago. It is chiefly used for decor- 
ating the borders of prints in executing 
show glasses, and inscriptions for various 
purposes, also for ornamental decorations 
in a variety of elegant forms, upon dif- 
ferent colored grounds ; but as black is the 
most general one in demand, shall first treat 011 
that, there being two ways of performing it. 

Procure some fine isinglass. You will find 
white and transparent is the best, otherwise 
it will be unfit for this purpose. Dissolve 
it in very clean water, and strain through linen 
cloth. Put a piece the size of a pea into a tea 
cup of luke warm water, and let it remain un- 
til dissolved. Make the glass you wish to have 
gilded quite clean, and free it of any dust or grease, get some 
leaf gold, put it on a gilding cushion, and cut into pieces accord- 
ing to the breadth you wish to have your work gilt. Go over the 



180 GILDING THE BORDERS OF GLASS. 

parts to be gilb with a hair pencil, dipped in the thin isinglass 
water, and while moist lay on the leaf gold, piece by piece, until 
the parts are covered. The leaf will instantly adhere to the glass. 
Then place it near the lire, in a slanting position, until it dries, 
which will be in a few minutes. 

While it is slightly warm, take a piece of cotton or wool and 
rub the gold to the glass, until you find the superfluous pieces of 
leaf gold gone, and likewise the back of the part gilt receives 
a kind of polish. Proceed to lay on a second coat of gold, in the 
same manner as the first, drying it as before, and polishing it, 
and so a third coat, which will be sufficient. 

Then take the size of tho print or drawing which is to be 
framed, and laying it on the gilt part of the glass, 7iiark where 
the edges come to, with a hair pencil and .some dark color, after 
which, being provided with a long ruler, and a pointed piece of 
ivory, draw two parallel lines out of your gold, and with a ma- 
hogany or deal stick, carefully pointed, work away the superfluous 
part, leaving the gold fillet which is to encompass the picture 
sharp and neat. If you wish to ornament it by any other lines, 
to appear black in the center, lay on your ruler, and with the 
ivory point scribe them, and then varnish, having some black 
Japan, to which a little lampblack has been added, to deepen the 
color. Paint it all over the gilt part of the glass, and the space 
between it and the edge, then set it to dry, which takes a few 
hours. When you are to lay out the breadth of the black line 
that is to be inside your gilding, scribe it with a sharp point, and 
cut away the waste black with a graver, or some sharp instru- 
ment. 

To cut figures, or any kind of ornament out of your gold, after 
the glass is gilt, have a drawing of the design on paper, at the 
back of which rub some powdered red chalk, and the smallest 
quantity of fresh butter ; lay the paper on the gld. and with a 
bluntish ivory point go over the lines of the drawing, and they 
will be nicely transferred on the gold, when you can with an 
ivory point trace them out i. and shade (hem agrees- 



GILDING THE BORDERS OF GLASS. 181 

ble to your fancy, or from the drawing you have by you. You 
may, by mixing any other color you choose with white copal 
varnish, vary your ground as you think proper. 

The most important secret in glass gilding is the following 
method : In an instant after your glass is blacked, taking away 
the parts where the gold is to appear, and the remainder of the 
black to stand fast, by which means the black gilding work is 
done in one-half the time, and with half the gold Jeaf. The 
process is simple, and is performed as f olloArs : Obtain the very 
best black Japan carriage varnish, to which add a very small 
portion of burned lampblack, very finely ground in spirits of tur- 
pentine ; then with a large flat varnish brush give the glass one 
even thin coat, holding it between you and the light, and observ- 
ing that it does not appear a thick dead black, but exhibits a 
degree of transparency not so much so as to prevent its appear- 
ing a good black at the right side of the glass. After this, have 
the letters and ornaments drawn on paper, as before mentioned, 
and trace it in the same manner on the black varnish when it is 
perfectly dry. The drawing will be thus very finely transferred 
to the black. Then take a needle pointed bodkin and finely 
mark the outlines of what black is to come out through the var- 
nish ; take some thick brown paper, dip it in water, and squeeze 
it gently, spread it over the parts of the varnish you want to de- 
tach from the glass, and in a few minutes, by raising one edge of 
the black, it will instantly peel away clean from the glass. When 
all the black you want is taken out, lay the glass to the fire, and 
the remaining part of the varnish will instantly become as hard 
as ever, and ready to have the gold put on. 




J~ 



ETCHING ON COPPER, 




(OING this kind of work upon copper, in 
imitation of engraving, at a much less 
expense, is something worthy the atten- 
tion of sketch-artists and draughtsmen, 
who will find it very useful in getting 
duplicates of their work. You first make 
a correct tracing with a black lead pencil 
of the drawing which is to be etched, then screw the copper 
plate into a small hand vice. It must be understood that the 
copper is perfectly free from scratches, or other blemishes. 

Warm the plate from the back with a, torch, which must be 
kept moving over it in all directions, until it becomes gradually 
heated. It should be just hot enough to allow your hand upon 
it for a second or two. Take the etching ground which is in- 
closed in a silk wrapper and rub it as evenly over the surface 
of the copper as you can. Before the plate cools, take the dab- 
bcr and dab over the etching ground until it becomes perfectly 
ilat, and indeed assumes the appearance of a thin transparent 
wash, through which the bright copper appears. The etching 
ground must be equally spread over the copper, not thick in one 
part and thin in another. Should the copper become too cold 
ere the dabbing has been finished, you may warm it again ; be 



ETCHING ON COPPER. 183 

careful, however, not to make it so as it will burn the etching 
ground this would be a great blunder, because it would not then 
resist the action of the biting-in liquid, which is aqua fortis of 
different decrees of strength. 

o ^j 

Now take a wax torch and smoke the whole surface of the 
copper thus prepared ; keep the torch at a fair distance from the 
copper, and move in all directions, until the whole plate Ijccomcs 
black with the smoke. Let the plate cool, then slightly dampen 
the tracing, and lay the penciled side upon the smoked plate, and 
run both through a printing press. Upon removing the tracing 
paper, you will find a perfect fac simile reversed of the draw- 
ing, transferred to the copper by means of the smoke. 

Now place the copper on the table, which must face the light, 
and put up between the light and your plate a shade of tissue 
paper, which will cause every scratch you make on the copper 
apparent. The shade is simply a sheet of tissue paper stretched 
upon a common wooden strainer. Keep it constantly up during 
your work. The plate may Ix; laid flat upon the table, or in- 
clined a little, just as you please. 

Now get a piece of thin mahogany, or common deal, longer 
than the copper, and sufficiently broad for your hand to rest 
upon while working, for the hand must not come in contact with 
the plate, otherwise the tracing would be obliterated. The rest 
for the hand must have two pieces of wood glued on each end, so 
as to raise it off the plate an inch or so ; or you may place a 
book on each side of the copper not on it and lay a flat piece 
of wood across it, and resting on the books ; all that is required 
being to keep the hand off the plate while etching in the outline. 

Have a looking-glass near, and place the original drawing or 
tracing before it, which will thus be rendered just as the reversed 
outline on the copi>er. Now take an etching point and slightly 
go over all the outline, simply watching the copper, not digging 
deeply in it. 

When all the etching is done, put a border or wall, about an 
inch high, all around the plate, to contain the biting-in fluid, 



184 ETCHING ON COPPER. 

Tho composition for bordering must be warmed, and laid down 
on the plate, taking care that it adheres sufficiently, or else the 
fluid will escape and burn whatever it touches. The aqua fortis 
is now to be laid over all the etching, and according to its 
strength so must its continuance be. It may be kept in motion 
with the feathered end of a quill, and when it bubbles up, you 
may be sure it is in active operation. 

When the distances and delicate lines have been etched in suf- 
ficiently, pour off the liquid, wash the plate with cold water, and 
when dry, cover up with the preparation made for the purpose 
of resisting the action of the fluid all the parts which, accord- 
ing to your judgment, are sufficiently bit in. Lay on the fluid 
again, and rebite the next delicate part?, then pour off as before, 
and wash the plate with cold water. Stop out and rebito again, 
and so continue to do until the wholj work is accomplished. 

The darkest parts of the etching always require more biting-in 
than the light parts. Clear off all the etching ground from the 
plate, and the work is done. 

Many ladies do this work for amusement, but they give the 
plate out to be bitten-in, as the fumes from the aqua fortis are 
unhealthy. 

The materials for the art of etching can be obtained in any 
village. There are also professed biters- in, who are employed by 
engravers. 

Etching on steel is done in precisely the same manner, only 
the biting-in fluid is much weaker. 

Etching Fluid for Copper. Mix two ounces aqua fortis 
with five ounces water. Another is verdigris, common salt, and 
sal ammoniac, each four ounces, alum one ounce, (all in powder), 
strong vinegar, eight ounces, water, one pound; dissolve by 
boiling for a moment ; cool and decant, 



KENSINGTON PAINTING, 




EKSINGTON art work probably, at the pres- 
time, is attracting more attention than 
the other methods of painting on silk and 
velvet. Kensington embroidery had its 
day, and while it has not altogether passed 
out of use, it ia nevertheless, like many 
other methods of art needle-work, being 
improved upon, and for the old method 
of doing the work with the thread, paint 
is being substituted, which far exceeds 
the more ancient work in splendor and 
simplicity. The great progress lately made in 
this accomplishment, the amount of mechanical 
and artistical power, far excels whatever else has 
formerly been called into use. Notwithstanding 
all this, however, the art bas not reached that 
wide state of perfection which, from the exquisite 
effects, it is capable of producing. 

Kensington painting, in general appearance, 
resembles Kensington embroidery, and as the lat- 
ter seemed to pass away, the former caught up the 
name, the idea being to produce with paint and 
brush upon cloth, afac simile of the raised work 
of embroidery, to answer a demand of artists in. 
oil for something new, 



186 KENSINGTON PAINTING. 

Materials Used. For doing the work procure the follow- 
ing materials : The best probably for the purpose would be a 
brass pen, one that is very elastic ; a goose quill would answer 
the purpose. Next is a round piece of steel, or needle, such as 
is used by milliners, and set in a handle if you wish. Three sable 
brushes, Nos. 3, 5, and 7. Cut from brush No. 3 all the bristles, 
leaving nothing but the abrupt square end of the metal holder; 
from No. 7 cut away nearly two-thirds of the hair, Jeaving it 
with a round end, and you have the required tools. 

Now arrange the velvet upon which the painting is to be laid, 
by stretching it upon pasteboard, and fasten with thumb tacks, so 
as it may be kept in place for working upon : after this is done, 
stamp upon it the pattern you wish to have painted. This can 
better be executed at a place where stamping for embroidery and 
other work is generally done, and where designs can be found from 
which you can select just the pattern you wish. 

If you have a picture you would like to paint, that is not perfor- 
ated, you may make a transfer of it to velvet by pricking through 
with a fine needle, following carefully and completely the full out- 
lines of the copy -before you, after this is done, and before the 
picture is moved, press through the now perforated pattern white 
powder, with a soft pad, which will show up the outlines of what 
you seek, on the velvet beneath, or you can use the transfer pro- 
cess given on page 28. It is now ready to receive the painting. 

The Colors used are Winsor & Newton's oil colors in tubes, 
and the opaque mixture for thinning. Flake white, rose madder, 
irrulean blue, vermilion, chrome green Nos. 1 and 2, burnt 
sienna, orange chrome, emerald green., mauve lake. For Poppies 
use Chinese vermilion, a little chrome yellow and green for the 
centers; for Pansies use mauve lake, with green and yellow for 
the center; for Daisies (white) with yellow centers, use flake 
white, with chrome yellow for the center ; Forget-me-nots, use 
light blue, by mixing white with permanent blue, dot the centers 
with yellow ; for leaves, use green, with a. little Naples yellow and 



KENSINGTON PAINTING. 187 

Chinese vermilion for autumn leaves ; for stems of flowers, use 
green, and green heightened with white for grasses, and where 
the leaves require it ; for Wild Rose, use rose madder and white, 
apply same as in poppy. 

Applying the Colors. After the piece has been fastened 
to the board, and the flower is stamped thereon, you may begin 
the painting. Take first a Forget-me-not. Commence with pen- 
cil No. 3. Take upon the brush all it will hold of cerulean 
blue, mixed with white lake, lay this upon the point which you 
are to place the flower, and with the brush press it out by rolling 
the brush from the center to the outline of the petal of the flower, 
in such quantities as to show a rolled edge, (resembling the em- 
broidery), leaving the center with but little of the paint. With 
the same brush, or point of the pen, (after cleaning with naptha), 
touch the center with a small particle of chrome yellow, (about 
the size of a pin head). Now, with the needle, lay on ihe stems, 
using green. In doing this, cover the whole of the needle with the 
color, and lay on the velvet full length, drawing it over the 
outline, and rolling in the fingers as you move it. This is also 
used in making flat grasses and leaves. In painting the daisy 
a pen is used. Place the paint first upon a palette knife, and 
then take it off from the knife with the pen, which will be found 
much more convenient, being particular to get the point full of 
the color by laying the pen sideways when taking it up, (using 
flake white), press to the outside of the flower, and by 
bearing heavy enough you will find it carries the color to the 
outline of the petal in rolls, leaving the center almost void 
of color. The instrument used for this should be very elastic, 
and one not easily broken by bending. After you have gone over 
each petal, dot the center, by using No. 3 brush, with chrome 
yellow and burnt sienna, mixed, using enough of the color to 
fit the space of pistil. 

In painting the Poppy, use No. 7 brush for outside petals, and 
No. 5 for inside, or .smaller ones. Press as before directed upon 



188 



KI:\'SINT,TO:; TAIN 



the brnx'.i, and turning it at, the same time toward iho outline, 
pressing the paint io t lie margin of the petal, and leaving it there 
in a roll, with the eentcr of the petal as before mentioned. 
This being done, take brush No. 3, and with chrome yellow place 
in the pistil and stamens (commonly called the "heart"). For 
other flower?, follow instructions as previously laid down. 

The outlines of flowers are made with brush No. 3, and the 
pen. The needle is again employed for drawing in the veins, 
using for this light green, and apply as heretofore directed, by 
covering with the color, and draw full length over the outlines 
endwise. 

In making autumn leaves, take No. 5 brush, using for this ver- 
milion, chrome yellow and burnt sienna, and sometimes a little 
green. For durability, this painting will compare favorably 
with any other method. 

N. B. When the opaque mixture is used no previous prepa- 
ration or coating of any kind is necessary. The colors will not 
spread, run or stain silk or velvet of the most delicate shade or 
tint, beyond the outline. 

Use the opaque mixer, to thin the paint to its proper consist- 
ency before applying, using no oils, turpentine, or dryer of any 
kind with the mixer, as it is of itself a sufficient dryer. 

If your silk or material painted shows a dampness beyond the 
line of color, let it remain until the coler dries, and it will all 
evaporate dry, leaving no stain whatever on the material, placing 
the paint beautifully in rolls, to imitate what it is intended to, 
Kensington embroidery. 



ARRASENE 





ADIES are turning away from the more 
laborious kinds of work, and seeking 
that which is artistic, useful, and beauti- 
ful. Many who have heretofore sat idle, 
are making their leisure hours pleasant, 
and their homes resplendent by aid of 
decorative art. Housekeeping may be 
classed among those necessities which, to many, 
is a "life-long torment," for which there is 
hardly a remedy, although there are those who 
find charms therein ; they at the same time are 
almost lost amid the vast multitude of ordinary 
indifferent ones. However, nearly all are kept 
mindful of the purity of the art of home deco- 
ration, and are showing sufficient interest to do 
something for its elevation. 
Arrasene embroidery is comparatively new, yet its beauty has 
so fascinated the women of taste that teachers of the art are 
sought after everywhere, and their scarcity has caused the publi- 
cation of the following instructions. 



190 ARRASENE AKD RIBBON EMBROIDERY. 

There is a wool culled wool arra.senc, and a silk culled silk 
arrasene ; the arrascne embroidery is simply the working of these 
in tufts, to form flowers and other ornaments, such as mottoes, 
cushions, etc. An owl worked in grey arrasene is beautiful, 
Inasmuch as the working of flowers seem to better satisfy the 
taste of arrasene art workers, I will give the instruction, 

How to Make a Wild Rose. For this you will need two 
shades of satin or velvet either are very pretty. Have the pat- 
tern stamped or drawn on whatever you wish to embroider, plush, 
felt, satin, or other goods ; cut the satin in shape of the petal of 
the flower, and be sure to have them long enough to turn in the 
edges. Now blindstitch it on the pattern, being careful to leave 
fullness enough to form folds in the petals, gathering them at 
the center, using the French knot, or seed stitch, and embroidery 
silk, yellow and brown for roses. For double rose, cut more 
pieces for petals, and lay one over the other, For daisies, use 
narrow white ribbon, plaiting the ribbon in the center, filling in 
with the French knot stitch, using two shades of yellow airi. 
brown. 

In making a forget-me-not, use very narrow blue ribbon, for 
the centers one knot stitch of yellow and one of red. For green 
leaves and stems, and the green around the rose, (calyx), use 
arrasene wool or silk, or a part of each, It is much handsomer 
to use the silk for high lights ; for stems of roses use reddish 
brown. 

Many flowers can be very effectively represented by the ribbon 
embroidery, such as dogwoods, sunflowers, pansies, and other 
varieties. 



PORTRAITURE 



IN 



(s * u- 

BLACK 




CRAYON. 




EATON POETEAITURE, to one who knows noth- 
ing of the method, seems not only very diffi- 
cult, but almost unattainable, except after 
long years of study and practice. Even then 
many suppose artists are born, not made. 
The writer of this article has been employed 
in teaching the art for several years, and 
could refer to many pupils who, after com- 
paratively few lessons, were able to exe- 
cute finished portraits of real merit. 
Any one who can learn to write can learn to 
draw, but a special method is necessary to 
enable pupils to work intelligently. Most other branches of art 
have been elaborately treated by able pens, but crayon drawing 
as a study, has been hitherto neglected. A car<*u; reparation 



192 PORTRAITURE IK BLACK CRAYOH. 

of written instructions cannot fail to enable one with ordinary 
ability and taste to master this most beautiful art. One of the 
first requisites for successful work, is to have proper material, 
and of the best quality. 

PAPER. The best and only paper that should be used is 
Whatman's imperial, or double elephant. It should never be used 
by tacking to a drawing board, but must be mounted on a stretch- 
er. All Art Stores have a ready supply of these, but for the sake 
of economy they can be made in the following manner. Take 
a pine frame 20x24, or any desired size, lay a sheet of Whatman's 
paper upon a table, face side down, dampen it with a sponge over 
the entire surface : lay the frame upon it, and trim the edges of 
the paper with a knife, about one' inch larger than the frame. 
Cut out the corners, then with a small brush put a little flour paste 
upon the paper beyond the frame, and also upon the edges of 
the frame ; turn this paper up on to the edges of the frame, 
drawing it a liitle with the fingers to take out the larger wrinkles, 
and make it adhere firmly. Put away in a cool room, to allow 
the paper to dry, and a stretcher is ready for use. Do not 
moisten the paper on the side upon which the drawing is to be 
made, as this would occasion spots, which would spoil the work. 
In selecting materials, buy the small paper stomps, which come 
in packages of a dozen or more ; one soft rolled chamois stomp^ 
(avoid the hard stiff ones) ; a stick of square Conte crayon No. 
3, a piece of Coiite rubber, which can be sharpened with a knife 
when it becomes too blunt, a few sticks of the round glossy Conte 
crayons, a crayon holder, and a few sticks of soft charcoal. Take 
a small block of wood, about 3x5 inches, paste a piece of fine 
sand paper carefully over one or both sides, and let it dry. This 
block is useful to sharpen and clean the rubber and paper stomps. 
Upon another block of the same size, or a little larger, paste a 
piece of Whatman's paper, smoothing it down carefully, allow ing 
this to dry thoroughly. Take the stick of No. 3 square crayon, 
rub it over this block hard, to make the pulverized crayon to be 
used with stomps, or use a fine file, and allow the crayon thus pul- 



PORTRAITURE IN BLACK CRAYON. 193 

verized to fall upon the block. Keep this free from dust 
when not in use. These are all the materials necessary to 
execute a crayon portrait. 

The next step will be to make the enlargement of the pho- 
tograph from which a copy is to be made, providing a solar 
print is not used. There are several ways of doing this. The 
best method is to have a good pentagraph, unless one is able 
to draw the outline enlargement free hand. In either or all 
cases make the outline upon a piece of manilla wrapping 
paper, cut the size of the stretcher intended. When this 
enlargement is made, thoroughly blacken the back with a 
piece of charcoal by laying the paper upon a smooth drawing 
board or table ; turn it over and lay it upon the stretcher, 
being careful to place it so the drawing will be in the center 
of the stretcher, securing it with tacks or pins at the corners, 
in order that it may not slip. With a stylus, or hard lead 
pencil, trace over all these outlines again, being careful to 
follow them accurately, omitting none. Remove the paper 
with care, and a definite outline of the picture will be seen 
upon the stretcher. This will rub off with the slightest 
touch, therefore take one of the paper stomps, rub it on the 
block of pulverized crayon, holding it in the hand as a pencil, 
trace lightly over these outlines in order to prevent losing 
them while at work upon the picture. Be careful, however, 
to do this very lightly, if not, the lines will show when the 
picture is finished, and spoil the effect of the work. 

The first step to be taken is to put the crayon on the dark- 
est part of the features. Eub the paper stomp on the block 
of pulverized crayon very hard, turning it around between 
the fingers in order to get the crayon on the whole surface of 
the point and tapering end. Apply this lightly but firmly, 
and with a broad stroke to the lines or lids above the eyes, 
the nostrils, the line through the center of the mouth, the 
dark shades in the ears and the eyebrows, following the out- 



194 PORTRAITURE IN BLACK CRAYON. 

lines already upon the stretcher. Put in the pupils of the 
eyes very black aud heavy. The stomp has now cleaned itself 
somewhat. Next darken the iris of the eye, put on the 
shadows under the eye, the curves of the nose from the eye- 
brows to the end, and the curves around the nostrils. Next 
the upper lip, tinting it lightly. Now define the outlines of 
the checks, working in light strokes inward, and hatching 
them, or crossing the strokes at an acute angle (never at 
right angles). Work for the expression, and hold it. 

Having gone thus far the stomp will be quite free of color. 
The blending process comes next in order. Work slightly 
upward from the lines around the eyes, borrowing from the 
color already there for the shadows desired. The same from 
all the features above mentioned, watching the photograph 
closely and leaving off such shadows gradually. 

Tint all the darker shades on the entire face in the same 
manner, not as dark at first as they will be required. Leave 
all the strong high lights perfectly white until the picture is 
nearly finished. In putting on these shadows the hatching 
process will be found the most effective, not, however, by 
making strong lines, but simply have the strokes of the 
stomp made in such direction, very soft and indistinct. If 
any large white spots seem to remain, thus destroying the 
evenness of the tone, touch them over lightly until the tone 
resembles in quality a wash with India ink or water color, 
gradually growing lighter and lighter until lost in the high 
lights and half tones. The beauty of the finished portrait 
will depend very largely upon this blending, as there must be 
no abrupt ending to any shadow. Leave the face for the 
present, and take the chamois stomp, rubbing it on the block 
of crayon until the end is thoroughly covered. Lay it very 
flat and lightly on the parts of the hair which are the darkest, 
commencing at the deepest part of such shades, and ending 
toward the high light. Leave these high lights as in the face 
perfectly white for the present. 



PORTRAITURE IN BLACK CRAYON. 195 

Try and follow the direction in which the hair is combed, 
but mass it. No attempt should be made to show individual 
hairs. It is simply light and shade in masses. Next take the 
clear end of the chamois stomp, borrow from the darker 
shades to tint the high lights, making broad strokes. If this 
makes them too dark, lighten with the rubber. All rubber 
strokes in the hair should also be broad, not fine lines. The 
drapery comes next in order. A black silk dress or a broad- 
cloth coat should be worked in the same manner. With the 
chamois stomp put in the darker places in the drapery first, 
following the same general rule of hatching only in broad 
strokes, not lines. Tint the higher lights in the drapery with 
the clean end of the same stomp, borrowing from the darker 
places as before. The same rule should be observed in ending 
the drapery, as in the shadows of the face let it become 
lighter and lighter, until lost entirely. 

Note carefully the collar and shirt front. Generally there 
will be seen light shadows upon them. If so, tint lightly 
with a clean stomp, borrowing the color necessary from the 
drapery, not from the block. 

If the drapery now appears spotty it must be cleaned up in 
the following manner. Fill up the lighter places with the 
paper stomp, rubbing lightly in different directions, while 
the spots that are too dark can be cleaned off with the rubber 
in light strokes. In this manner the drapery can be worked 
up very smoothly, and free from spots. The background 
should be worked up in the same manner as the drapery, only 
not as dark. Do not put a background around the entire head, 
only from the shoulders up about half the distance to the 
forehead. If the subject is a lady, and lace work is desired, 
make this with the paper stomp. Do not work for details, 
but in an indistinct manner, following the original design 
somewhat, but in soft strokes, taking out the high light with 
the rubber, if necessary. The drapery, background and hair 



196 PORTRAITURE IN BLACK CRAYON. 

are now supposed to be finished, the above directions having 
been followed carefully. 

The finishing of the features must now be attended to. 
With a paper stomp, not too black, strengthen all the darkest 
shades in the face, borrowing color again, working the shades 
off upon the high lights, preserving the half tones and 
reflected lights. Unless the high lights are very strong in 
the original, tint them over slightly with a stomp fairly clean. 
It is hardly necessary to say the subject, or original photo- 
graph, must be studied very carefully. If this is done, and 
the outlines accurately made, a perfect likeness will be the 
result. 

If the pupils of the eyes, or any very deep shadow, nred a 
little strengthening, it can be done with the round Conte 
crayon, sharpened to a very fine point, and hatched lightly 
over such shadows. 

The finishing touches must be made by using a clean paper 
stomp, going over the entire picture, a little beyond all the 
outlines, to soften them, thus producing a soft and natural 
effect. Last of all, take out the catch light in the eyes, with 
a sharp pointed knife, scratching it slightly until it is of the 
desired shape. 

In closing these instructions, the writer wishes to impress 
upon the pupil or reader the necessity of working at all times, 
and upon all parts of the picture, very lightly, if not, a muddy 
effect will be the result. The hatching should be tolerably 
open, but not too much so. This produces the effect of 
transparency, which is very desirable. 

If the above instructions are carefully studied, and patient 
labor put forth, any one may reasonably expect to obtain 
excellence in representing life-like and natural portraits. 



* 



ANALYSIS Of COLONS, 



THEIR NATURE AND DUALITY, 




K will begin with gall-stone, which is one of the finest 
and brightest in the world, and a very lasting color, 
although in face painting it should be sparingly 
used, its wonderful brilliancy being apt to drown all the other 
colors, and make the work it is used in too warm in its tints. 

Of Terra Sienna, it is unburnt, a bright yellow-brown 
earth, and is used by some miniature painters as a warm yel- 
low; but burnt it is a beautiful color, and partakes of three 
tints, yellow, red and brown. 

Yellow Oc/ire is a bright yellow earth, and comes from 
France, is semi-opaque, and works well. Much used by 
artists, but must be used witt caution. It is a lasting color, 
and of service in the fleshy face tints. 

Roman Ochre is a reddish yellow earth of a very great body, 
and used by some with success in miniature painting. Used 
with gum water it works well, and being a warm color, it 
communicates that quality to the tints it is worked on. 

Naples Yellow is an earth found near Naples, and is a soft, 
bright and durable color. A great proportion of that used 
is composed of lead, alum, sal-ammonia and antimony. This 

197 



l'J8 ANALYSIS OF COLORS. 

color is not very much used by artists, as it does not stand 
well. Is a pale, gritty yellow. It absorbs all colors that are 
worked on it or mixed with it. 

Gamboge is the concrete juice of various trees in Ceylon is 
a transparent color, and consequently useful as a glazing 
color. 

Yellows have their base in iron, lead, quicksilver and 
arsenic. 

BLUK. Of all blues in use none can equal ultra-marine 
its wonderful brilliancy and permanency excelling all others. 
But it is often adulterated after reaching this country, and 
the genuine is not common. Put a small quantity on a case 
knife, and hold it over a candle, keep the smoke from touch- 
ing it; if adulterated it will appear in grey spots, and if gen- 
uine it will remain brilliant as at first. It was formerly made 
from lazulite, the beatiful variegated blue mineral, worth at 
one time in Italy twenty-five dollars an ounce. A greater 
part of that used now is composed of carbonate of soda, sul- 
phur and kaolin, colored with cobalt. 

Prussian Blue is a good color, it is a ferrocyanuret of iron, 
produced in different ways. There is no substitute for Prus- 
sian blue for miniature painting on account of its strength of 
effect and transparency. The best and purest is that which 
is dark color. 

Indigo is beautiful on account of its extreme depth of color, 
nearly approaching to black ; the best is called the rock 
indigo. 

Cobalt is another fine blue, much used in sky grounds, and 
in the delicate parts of faces and necks. 

French Ultra. A beautiful bright blue ; it is adapted for 
ladies' drapery rather too powerful for pearly tints or flesh. 

Permanent Blue, Cerulean. Useful in draperies and back- 
grounds ; also in landscape and flower painting. Not good 
for flesh tints. 



ANALYSIS OF COLORS. 199 

Sap Green is the juice of buckthorn berries, and has proven 
to be a highly useful color when judiciously mixed with other 
colors, producing warm fleshy tints which cannot be made 
without it. 

Copper is the base of most blues, though some are formed 
from iron and cobalt. 

REDS. Carmine is a fine bright crimson, inclining to scar- 
let, and rather an opaque color. From it a variety of fine 
tints may be made, but it being a very high red, renders it 
unfit for delicate subjects ; in this case use rose madder. 
There are various kinds of it prepared of other reds, but the 
deep kind is the best, the lighter being made eo by adultera- 
tion, commonly made of alum and cream tartar, colored with 
cochineal, but it fades rapidly by out door exposure. The 
genuine is made from kaolin, or China clay, colored with 
cochineal, prepared with much difficulty, which makes it 
expensive. 

Crimson Lake is a beautiful crimson color, inclining toward 
the purple, making it useful for the carnation tints in paint- 
ing delicate subjects. 

Chinese Vermilion is a bright red, and useful in miniature 
pictures, though too freely used, its opacity renders it dan- 
gerous to mix much with other colors, but by itself, in touch- 
ing the lips and other parts that require extreme brightness, 
it is of good service. It comes from China in small parcels, 
fourteen ounces each. 

The native, or Mineral Cinnabar, or vermilion, is very fine 
in Spain ; the French have mines of it in Normandy. 

Light Red. Useful In almost all flesh colors, and the 
ground upon which all the finer tints are made. 

Venetian Red. Nearly the same as light red, and used 
almost for the same purpose. It is an earth, found in many 
parts of the world. 

Rose Madder, indispensable for carnation lips. This, with 



200 ANALYSIS OF COLORS. 

cobalt, and almost any transparent yellow, forms all sorts of 
pearly and grey tints. 

Indian Red is of a deep purple cast, and a most excellent 
color for touching the deep red parts, and the fleshy tints. 
Also useful in bright backgrounds and draperies. 

B*OWNS. Umber is a yellowish brown, and mixes well 
with water colors. Useful in backgrounds. When properly 
burnt it is a charming reddish brown, very useful in hair. 
Works extremely well. 

Terra de Cassel,oi' Vandyke brown, so called from the very 
great estimation the inimitable painter of that name held it 
in, is the finest rich brown in the world, in itself producing a 
more beautiful color than can be formed by the junction of 
any colors whatever. It is in general use, and is, in its nat- 
ural state, rather coarse and sandy, but when prepared, it 
amply repays the artist for his labor ; good glazing color for 
hair shadows. 

Lampblack is the smoke of burning resin, and is useful for 
marking the pupil of the eye, and in painting draperies. It 
is a good color when burnt, stands and works remarkably well. 
The smoke of a candle, received on a plate, is found the best, 
being blacker than the common lampblack. Ivory black is 
preferred by some. 

King's Yellow is a fine bright opaque color, and is admirably 
calculated for painting lace, gilt buttons, etc., but should be 
cautiously used, as it is a rank poison. 

Chinese White is permanent, and works remarkably well; it 
is freely used on every part of a picture in water colors. 

Flake White. This is the only white adapted for oil colors. 
Chinese white is never used. 

MIXING COMPOUND TINTS FOE THE FACE. Purple is 
formed of either ultra-marine, Prussian blue, smalt or indigo, 
mixed with either carmine or lake. Ultra-marine, although 
the most beautiful and brilliant of colors by itself, Uses that 



ANALYSIS OF COLORS. 



201 



perfection in any mixture, but it still retains a sufficient 
share of brightness to render it a desirable tint in the pur- 
piish-grey tints of the face. Prussian blue, mixed as before 
mentioned, makes a bright or dark purple, according to the 
quantity of either color. Indigo makes a still darker purple, 
owing to its great natural depth of color. French ultra and 
carmine, or lake, forms nearly the same tint as ultra-marine, 
and may be used nearly for the same purpose. 

Olive Tints. A very fine olive tint is formed of gall-stone, 
Nottingham ochre and carmine, or lake; and another of sap 
green and lake only. 

TINTS AND THE COLORS WHICH PRODUCE THEM. 
Grey is made by combining White and Lampblack. 



Buff 

Pearl 

Orange 

Violet 

Purple 

Gold 

Olive 

Chestnut 

Flesh 

Limestone 

Sandstone 

Freestone 

Fawn 

Chocolate 

Drab 

Pea Green 

Eose 

Copper 

Lemon 

Snuff 

Claret 



White and Yellow Ochre, Red. 

White, Black, Blue. 

Yellow, Eed. 

Red, Blue, White. 

Violet, Red, White. 

White, Stone, Ochre, Red. 

Yellow, Blue, Black, White. 

Red, Black, Yellow. 

White, Yellow Ochre, Vermilion. 

White, Yellow Ochre, Red, Black. 

White, Yellow Ochre, Red, Black. 

Red, Black, Yellow Ochre, White. 

White, Yellow, Red. 

Raw Umber, Red, Black. 

White, Raw and Burnt Umber. 

White and Chrome Green. 

White, Madder, Lake. 

Red, Yellow, Black. 

White, Yellow. 

Yellow, Vandyke Brown, 

Bed, Timber, Black, 



202 ANALYSIS OF COLORS. 

Dove is made by combining "White, Yermilion, Blue, Yellow. 
Pink " White, Vermilion, Lake. 

Cream " White, Yellow. 

Salmon " White, Yellow, Raw Umber, Red. 

Straw " White, Chrome Yellow. 

Lilac " White, with Violet. 

Changeable " Red, Green, lightened with White. 

Peach Blossom " White, Red, Blue, Yellow. 

Bronze Green " Chrome Green, Black, Yellow, or 

Black and Yellow, or Black and Green. 

TRANSPARENT COLORS. Burnt Terre de Sienna, Terre 
Verte Asphaltum, Dragon's blood, Carmine, Rose Pink, 
Gamboge, Prussian Blue, all the Lakes and all the Gums. 

SEMI-TRANSPARENT. Umber, Vandyke Brown, Chrome 
Red, Emerald Green, Indigo, Verdigris, Brilliant Ultra- 
Marine. 

CONTRAST AND HARMONY OF COLORS. One color will 
generally harmonize with another when both contain the 
same base in different proportions. White contrasts with 
Black, Brown, and harmonizes with any other color. Yellow 
contrasts with Purple, White, and harmonizes with Orange 
and pale colors. Orange contrasts with Blue, and harmonizes 
with Red, Pink. Red contrasts with Green, and harmonizes 
with Crimson. Green contrasts with Red, and harmonizes 
with Yellow. Purple contrasts with Yellow, White, and 
harmonizes with Crimson. Black contrasts with pale colors, 
and harmonizes with deep colors. Gold contrasts with dark 
colors, and harmonizes with light colors. 



SKINNING, PREPARING AND MOUNTING THE MAMMALIA, 
OR QUADRUPEDS. 




SKINNING. 

7"" ^ 

'HEN a quadruped is killed, and its skin intended for 
stuffing, the preparatory steps are to lay the animal 
on its back and plug up its nostrils, mouth, and any 
wounds it may have received, with cotton or tow, to prevent 
the blood from disfiguring the skin. The fox will serve ad- 
mirably our purpose as an example. Therefore, Reynard 
being procured, we need not say how, lay him on his back in 
the same position as before recommended, and having first 
stuffed the mouth with cotton and tied it up, and measured 
his neck and body with rule and calipers, and noted them, 
proceed. Make an incision from the last rib nearly to the 
vent, but not quite up to it. Having done so, proceed to 
raise the skin all round the incision as far as the thighs, first 
skinning one side and then the other, using the flat end of 
the knife in preference to the blade to raise the skin. Hav- 
ing reached the hind legs, separate the latter at the femur or 
thigh-bone, close to the back-bone, leaving the legs attached 
to the skin. Now skin the head quarters close up to the tail, 
and separate it from the body at the last vertebrae, taking 
care not to injure the skin. Pull the skin over the heads of 

203 



204 TAXIDERMY. 

the hip-joints, and now the carcase maybe suspended by the 
hind-quarters, while the skin is stripped by puLing it gently 
and cutting towards the fore-quarters. The fore-legs are sepa- 
rated from the body, as the hind ones had been, close to the 
shoulder-bone, and the skin fairly pulled over the head and 
close to the nose, when the head is separated from the body 
by cutting through the last vertebrae of the neck. Reynard 
is now skinned, the head, legs, and tail being all attached to 
the skin, from which the carcase is separated. 

The flesh is now cut entirely away from the cheek-bones, 
the eyes removed, the brains taken out by enlarging the occip- 
ital opening behind the cranium, the whole cleaned and 
supplied with a coating of arsenical paste and stuffed with 
tow or wool to the natural size. 

The legs are now successively skinned by pushing out the 
bones and inverting the skin over them until the foot-joint is 
visible ; every portion of flesh and tendons must be cut away 
and the bone cleaned thoroughly, and a coating of arsenical 
soap laid over it as well as the skin. Wrap tow, or cotton, or 
any other suitable material, round the bone, bringing it to its 
natural shape, and draw the skin over it again. Do this to 
each leg in succession, and the body itself is ready for stuff- 
ing and mounting. 

The utmost care will not prevent accidents ; the fur and 
plumage will get sullied, and before stuffing it is well to ex- 
amine the skin, for stains and spots are calculated to deterio- 
rate its appearance. Grease or blood-spots may be removed 
by brushing over with oil of turpentine, which is afterwards 
absorbed by dusting plaster of Paris over. Macgillivray 
recommends that all skins, whether they are to be put away 
in a cabinet or stuffed, should receive a washing of spirits of 
turpentine sprinkled on, and gently brushed in the direction 
of the feathers or fur. Not to trust too much to memory, it is 
desirable to measure and note the proportions of the animal 
before skinning, first taking the muzzle to the tail. After- 



SKINNING. 205 

wards, from the junction of the tail to the tip. Secondly, 
from the middle of the shoulder-blade, or scapula, to the 
articulation of the femur, or thigh-bone. Thirdly, the ani- 
mal being placed on its side, measure from the upper part of 
the scapula to the middle of the sternum that is, to the 
spot where the two sides meet above, and finally from the 
socket of the scapula to the socket of the articulation of the 
femur, or thigh-bone. In addition to these, note, by meas- 
urement with caliper compasses, the size of the head, the neck, 
the tail, and other points which affect the shape of the animal. 
These measurements will serve as a guide in stuffing, and for 
the size of the case and length of the mounting wires. In 
the process of skinning, it is important to avoid penetrating 
to the intestines, or separating any of the abdominal muscles 
which lead to the intestines ; any such accident would be 
very disagreeable, as well as injurious to the skin. 

Stuffing Quadrupeds, etc. Let us suppose the animal 
which we intend to stuff, to be a cat. Wire of such a 
thickness is chosen as will support the animal by being 
introduced under the soles of the feet, and running it 
through each of the four legs. A piece of smaller dimen- 
sions is then taken, measuring about two feet, for the 
purpose of forming what is termed by stuffers, a tail- 
bearer. This piece of wire is bent at nearly a third of its 
length, into an oval of about six inches in length ; the two 
ends are twisted together, so as to leave one of them some- 
what longer than the other ; the tail is then correctly meas- 
ured, and the wire is cut to the length of it, besides the 
oval. The wire is then wrapped round with flax in a spiral 
form, which must be increased in thickness as it approaches 
the oval, so as to be nearly equal to the dimensions of the 
largest vertebrse, or root of the tail. When finished, it should 
be rubbed thinly over with flour paste, to preserve its smooth 
form, which must be allowed to dry thoroughly, and then 



206 TAXIDERMY. 

the surface should receive a coating of the preservative. 
The sheath of the tail must now be rubbed inside with the 
preservative. This is applied with a small quantity of lint, 
attached to the end of a wire, long enough to reach the point 
of the tail-sheath. The tail-bearer is then inserted into the 
sheath, and the oval part of the wire placed within the skin 
of the belly, and attached to the longitudinal wire, which is 
substituted for the vertebras or back-bone. 

Four pieces of wire, about the thickness of a crow-quill, 
are then taken, which must be the length of the legs, and 
another piece a foot or fifteen inches longer than the body. 
One end of each of these is sharpened with a file, in a trian- 
gular shape, so that it may the more easily penetrate the 
parts. At the blunt end of the longest piece a ring is 
formed, large enough to admit of the point of a finger enter- 
ing it ; this is done by bending the wire back on itself a turn 
and a-half, by the assistance of the round pincers. On the 
same wire another ring is formed in a similar manner, con- 
sisting of one entire turn, and so situated as to reach just be- 
tween the animal's shoulders. The remaining part of this 
wire should be perfectly straight, and triangularly pointed at 
the extremity. 

Another method of forming the supporting wires, as prac- 
ticed by M. Nichols, is to take a central wire, which must be 
the length of the head, neck, body and tail of the cat ; two 
other pieces are then taken and twisted round the center 
piece, these extremities being left for the leg wires. After 
the wires are thus twisted together the central one is pulled 
out, and the feet wires of one side are pushed through the 
legs of one side from the inside of the skin, and the other two 
leg pieces are bent and also forced through the legs, and after- 
ward made straight by a pair of pincers ; the center piece, 
having been previously sharpened at one end with a file, is 
now forced through the forehead and down the neck, till it 
enters the center of the twisted leg wires which it formerly 



occupied, and pushed forward to the extremity of the tail, 
leaving a small piece projecting out of the forehead, after 
which the completion of the stuffing is proceeded with. 

This mode is unnecessary for the smaller animals, and it 
should only be adopted for quadrupeds the size of deer, etc. 
These wires are, besides, much more difficult to insert by this 
than by the other method. 

All the wires being adjusted, the operation of stuffing is 
next proceeded with. The skin of the cat is now extended on 
a table ; and the end of the noose seized with the left hand, 
and again pushed into the skin, till it reaches the neck, when 
we receive the bones of the head into the right hand. The 
skull is now well rubbed over with the arsenical soap, and all 
the cavities which the muscles before occupied are filled with 
chopped tow, flax, or cotton, well mixed with preserving 
powder. The long piece of wire is now passed into the mid- 
dle of the skull, and after it is well rubbed over with the pre- 
servative, it is returned into the skin. The inner surface of 
the neck-skin is now anointed, and stuffed with chopped flax, 
taking care not to distend it too much. Nothing like pressure 
should be applied, as the fresh skin is susceptible of much 
expansion. 

Observe that it is always the inner surface which is 
anointed with the arsenical soap. Take care that the first 
ring of the wire, which passes into the head is in the 
direction of the shoulders, and the second corresponding 
with the pelvis, or somewhat toward the posterior part. 
One of the fore-leg wires is then inserted along the back of 
the bone, and the point passed out under the highest ball of 
the paw. When this is accomplished the bones of the leg 
are drawn up within the skin of the body, and the wire fast- 
ened to the bones of the arm and fore-arm with strong thread 
or small twine. Brass wire, used for piano forte strings, 
makes it more secure, and is not liable to rot. These aro well 
anointed, and flax or tow slivers wrapped around them so as 



08 TAXIDKRMY. 

to supply the place of the muscles which have been removed. 
To give the natural rise to the larger muscles, a piece of sil- 
ver should be cat off the length of the protuberance required 
and placed in the part, and the silver wrapped over it. This 
gives it a very natural appearance. 

The mode of fixing the legs is by passing one of their pieces 
of wire into the small ring of the horizontal or middle sup- 
porting wire. Pursue the same plan with the other leg, and 
then twist the two ends firmly together by the aid of a pair 
of fiat pincers. For an animal of the size of a cat, the pieces 
left for twisting must be from five to six inches in length. 
After being twisted, they are bound on the under side of the 
body wire with strong thread; the two legs are then replaced 
and put in the form in which we intend to fix them. The 
skin of the belly and top of the shoulders is then anointed, 
and a thick layer of flax placed under the middle wire. The 
shape is now given to the scapulae on both sides, and all the 
muscles of the shoulders imitated. These will be elevated or 
depressed, according to the action intended to be expressed. 
The anterior part of the opening is now sewed up, to retain 
the stuffing, and to enable us to complete the formation of 
the shoulders and junction of the neck. This part of the 
animal is of great importance, as regards the perfection of its 
form, and much of its beauty will depend upon this being 
well executed. 

If the animal has been recently skinned, the best plan 
possible is to imitate, as nearly as possible, the muscles of 
the carcase, by which many parts will be noticed which 
might otherwise have been neglected. As a rule, COPY NAT- 
URE WHENEVER YOU HAVE IT IN YOUR POWER. 

It must be observed as a general rule, that the wires for 
the hind legs of quadrupeds should always be longer than 
those of the fore legs. 

The next thing is to form the hind legs and thighs, which 
must be done as above described for the fore legs; but with 



SKINNING. 209 

this difference, that they must be wound round with thread, 
drawn through the stuffing at intervals, to prevent it slipping 
up when returned into the skin of the leg. They are then 
fixed by passing the leg wires into a second ring of the cen- 
ter body wire, which is situated at or near the pelvis; the 
two ends are then bent, twisting them to the right and left 
around the ring ; and, to make them still more secure, they 
should be wound round with small brass wire or packthread; 
the tail-bearer is then attached in the manner formerly de- 
scribed. 

Having completed this part of the iron work, the gkin of 
the thighs is coated inside with the preservative, and the 
stuffing completed with chopped flax or tow. The whole in- 
ner parts of the skin which can be reached are again 
anointed, and the body stuffing completed with chopped 
flax. Care must be also paid not to stuff the belly too much, 
as the skin very easily dilates. The incision in the belly is 
now closed by bringing the skin together, and then sewed 
within and without, while attention is paid to divide the 
hairs, and not to take any of them in along with the thread ; 
but should any of them be inadvertently fixed, they can be 
picked out easily with a point. When this is completed, the 
hair will resume its natural order and completely conceal 
the seam. 

The seam should now be well primed on both sides with 
the solution of corrosive sublimate, to prevent the entrance 
of moths. 

The articulations of the legs are then bent, and the animal 
placed on its feet, and pressure used at the natural flat 
places, so as to make the other parts rise where the muscles 
are visible. 

A board is now prepared, on which to place the cat. But 
before fixing it permanently the animal should be set in the 
attitude in which it is intended to be preserved, and the 
operator, having satisfied himself, then pierces four holes for 



210 TAXIDERMY. 

the admission of the feet wires, which must be drawn 
through with a pair of pincers till the paws rest firmly on 
the board. Small grooves are then made for the reception of 
the pieces of wires which have been drawn through, so that 
they may be folded back and pressed down in them, and not 
be beyond the level of the back of the board ; wire nails are 
now driven half in, and their heads bent down on the wires 
to prevent them from getting loose or becoming movable. 

The stuffer next directs his attention to the position and 
final stuffing of the head and neck. The muscles of the face 
must be imitated as correctly as possible by stuffing in cot- 
ton at the opening of the eyes, as also at the mouth, ears and 
nostrils. To aid in this also the inner materials may be 
drawn forward by the assistance of instruments, and also 
small pieces of wood formed like small knitting meshes. 

Our next care is the insertion of the eyes, which must be 
done while the eyelids are yet fresh. Some dexterity and 
skill are required in this operation, and on it will depend 
most of the beauty and character of the head. The seats of 
the eyes are supplied with a little cement, the eyes put in 
their place, and the eyelids properly drawn over the eyeballs; 
but if rage or fear are to be expressed, a considerable portion 
of the eyeballs must be exposed. The lips are afterwards 
disposed in their natural state and fastened with pins. If 
the mouth is intended to be open, it will be necessary to sup- 
port the lips with cotton, which can be removed when they 
are dry. Two small balls of cotton, firmly pressed together 
and well tinctured with the arsenical soap, must be thrust 
into the nostrils so as to completely plug them up to prevent 
the air from penetrating, as also the intrusion of moths; and, 
besides, it has the effect of preserving the natural shape of 
the nose after it has dried. The same precaution should be 
adopted with the ears, which, in the cat, require but little at- 
tention in setting. 

We must again recommend the stufier to see that he has 



SKINNING. 211 

sufficiently applied the preservative soap ; and the nose, lips, 
eyes and paws, being very liable to decay, must be well im- 
bued with spirits of turpentine. This is applied with a 
brush, and must be repeated six or eight times, at intervals 
of some days, until we are certain of the parts being well 
primed with it ; and, after all, it will be advisable to give it 
a single coating of the solution of corrosive sublimate. 

The methods of stuffing, which we have pointed out in the 
preceding pages, are applicable to all animals, from a lion 
down to the smallest mouse. Animals of a large description 
require a frame- work suited to their dimensions; these we will 
point out in their order. There are also some animals whose 
peculiarity of structure requires treatment differing a little 
from the ordinary course. 

Apes and Monkeys. One of the chief difficulties to con- 
tend with in setting up monkeys and apes, is the preserva- 
tion of their hands and hind hands, or what we commonly 
call their feet; because we must not attempt to deprive these 
limbs of their flesh, as we never could again supply its place 
anything like what is in nature. The hands must therefore be 
dried, and then well imbued with turpentine and the solution 
of corrosive sublimate, repeated eight or ten times at least, at 
intervals of four or five days. The other parts of the stuffing 
should be exactly similar to that recommended for quadru- 
peds generally. The paws of several will require to be colored 
with the different varnishes, and, when dry, slightly polished 
with fine sand paper to remove the gloss. The callosities, on 
the hinder parts of many of them, will also require to be col- 
ored, and treated in the same way as the face. 

Bats. The wing-membranes of this varied and numerous 
tribe do not require either wire or parchment to set them. 
They are very easily dried by distension. They are laid on 
a board of soft wood, the wings extended and pinned equally 



212 TAXIDERMY. 

at the articulations, and, when dry, they are removed from 
the board. 

Hedgehogs. When it is wished to preserve hedgehogs, 
rolled into a ball, which is a very common position with them 
in a state of nature, there should be much less stuffing put 
into them than is uiual with quadrupeds, so that they may 
the more easily bend. No wires are required in this case. 
The head and feet are drawn close together under the belly; 
then place the animal on its back in the middle of a large 
cloth, and tie the four ends firmly together; suspend it in the 
air till thoroughly dry, which finishes the operation. 

If hedgehogs are wished with the heads and limbs ex- 
posed, the usual method of mounting is adopted. The skins 
of mice, moles, etc., having a very offensive smell, it will be 
necessary to add a considerable portion of the tincture of 
musk to the solution of the corrosive sublimate with which 
the skins are imbued. The same applies to badgers, wolver- 
enes, polecats and skunks, all of which are strong smelling 
animals. 

Bears. The structure of the wires requires to be different 
in these larger animals from any we have before described. 

Procure a bar one inch thick, two inches broad, and as long 
as to reach horizontally from the shoulders to the connection 
of the thighs, or os pubis. A hole is bored four inches distant 
from one of its ends, from which a connecting groove must 
be formed, extending on both sides to the end of the plank 
next the hole ; this groove must be cut out with a hollow 
chisel deep enough to receive the wire. The wire is then 
passed through it, one end of which is just long enough to be 
twisted with the other at the end of the plank. The wire on 
both sides is now pressed down into the grooves and twisted 
firmly together by the aid of a pair of strong pincers. Pierce 
some holes obliquely into the groove and insert some wire 



SKINNING. 213 

nails into them, which must be firmly driven home, and then 
bent over the wires to keep them firm. The longest end of 
the wire should be at least eighteen inches beyond the bar so 
as to pass through the skull of the animal. 

The use of this bar, it will be observed, is a substitute for 
the central or supporting wires of the body. Two other holes 
are now bored into it, the one two, and the other three inches 
from the end which we first pierced ; these are for the recep- 
tion of the wires of the fore legs ; and two similar holes must 
be made at the other extremity of the bar for reeeiving the 
wires of the hind legs. 

Bears always support themselves on the full expansion of 
their dilated paws, so that it is necessary to bring the leg- 
wires out at the claws. The leg-wires are bent at right angles 
for a length of five inches from the upper end. These are put 
through the holes in the bar, and when they have passed 
through they are curved agfin. Two small gimlet-holes are 
then made for the reception of smaller wire, by which the 
leg-wires must be bound together close to the bar. The fore- 
leg-wires are fixed in the same manner, which completes the 
framework. 

No other means are used for middle-sized animals, such as 
the lion, tiger, leopard, etc. The stuffing is completed as in 
other quadrupeds. 

The walrus, seals, and other amphibious animals of this 
order, are treated in the manner of quadrupeds generally, 
only that leg-wires are unnecessary, except in the fore-feet; 
the tail, which represents the hind-feet, has merely to be dried 
and kept properly stretched in during this process, which 
precaution also applies to the fore-feet. They are the easiest 
stuffed of all animals, only the skins are very oily; they should 
be well rubbed with the arsenical soap, and also with the pre- 
serving powder. 

The stuffing of the walrus, and other large animals of this 



211 TAXIDEHMY. 

family, should consist of well dried hay for the interior parts 
and tow for the surface next the skin. 

Beaver, etc. The beaver, musk rat, common rat, and 
other auimals whose skins have a strong smell. These require 
to be plentifully supplied with the preservative. The tail of 
the beaver should be cut underneath, and all the flesh removed, 
then stuffed with tow or chopped flax, and afterwards thor- 
oughly dried and well primed with the arsenical soap to pre- 
vent putrefaction, to which it is very liable. It should also 
have repeated washings with oil of turpentine. The back 
should be round and short. 

The Porcupine. In stuffing this animal considerable 
and varied expression may be given, both from the attitude 
and disposition of the quills. Great attention is therefore 
required in giving these a proper set during the process of 
drying. They will require to be looked at several times dur- 
ing the first and second day after they have been stuffed, and 
any of them that may have fallen out of the position required, 
to be adjusted. 

Hares and Rabbits. A very pretty attitude for the hare 
or rabbit, is to have it seated in its form in an upright posi- 
tion, as if alarmed at the noise of dogs, etc. An oval is 
formed of wire and attached to the interior framework, after 
having passed one end of it through the anus, which must be 
passed through a hole in the board on which the animal is to 
be fixed. The wires of the hind legs must be forced through 
the posterior part of them, and also fixed into holes formed 
for their reception in the board. 

Deer, Antelopes, Goats, etc. These animals should be 
mounted on the same principles as recommended for the bears. 
A different mode must, however, be adopted in skinning the 



SKINNING. 215 

animals, which the horns render necessary. It is performed 
in the ordinary manner until the operator reaches the neck. 
After cutting as near the head as possible, another incision 
must be made, commencing under the chin, which is con- 
tinued to the bottom of the neck, or from eight to ten inches 
in length. By this opening, the remainder of the neck is 
separated from the head; the tongue is cut out, and the occip- 
ital orifice enlarged, and the brain extracted thereby. The 
lips are now cut as near as possible to the jaw bones, and the 
operator must continue progressively ascending towards the 
forehead, and in this manner all the skin will be separated 
from the head, except at the nose, or point of the muzzle. 
All the muscles are next removed by the scalpel, and the skull 
well anointed with arsenical soap. The muscles which have 
been cut out are then imitated with chopped flax or cotton, 
which may be attached to the bones with cement. When this 
is done, the head must be replaced within the skin. The ori- 
fice under the neck must now be sewed up with fine stitches, 
so that the hair may spread over them to conceal the seam. 
The whole other parts of the mounting is completed as 
directed for the bear. 

The Dolphin, Porpoise, etc. The structure of these ani- 
mals, as well as of the other species of the first family of this 
order, differs but little in general structure. 

In skinning these, an incision is made under the chin, and 
continued to the extremity of the tail ; the skin is then de- 
tached right and left with the scalpel, or a sharp knife. 
When the skin has been cut back as far as possible, disen- 
gage the vertebrae at the tail, and this will enable the oper- 
ator to detach the skin from the back ; the vertebrae are now 
cut close to the head, and the whole carcase removed. 

All this tribe have a thick layer of fat under their skin. In 
the operation of skinning it requires considerable dexterity 
to leave this fat, or blubber, adherring to the carcase. Prac- 



216 TAXIDERMY. 

tice alone will obviate this. When this has not been prop- 
erly managed in the skinning, the only thing to be done 
afterwards is to scrape it thoroughly with a knife. The oil 
which flows from it during this operation must be soaked up 
with bran, or plaster of Paris. 

There being no muscular projections in the skin of the 
porpoise, there is no use for wires in mounting it, A narrow 
piece of wood the length of the body is quite sufficient to 
keep the skin stretched, and stuffed either with tow or hay. 
Some months are necessary to render it perfectly dry and 
stiff, from its greasy nature. The grease almost always leaves 
some disagreeable looking spots on the skin. To remove these, 
and prevent a recurrence of them, powdered pumice-stone 
steeped in olive oil, is rubbed thickly on the skin with 
a hand-brush. It is then gone over a second time with 
emery and oil. It is rubbed in this way till the skin has a 
glossy appearance, when it may be rubbed dry with a woolen 
cloth ; and to complete the polish, a clean woolen cloth may 
be applied with some force to complete the gloss, which is 
natural to the skin in a living state. 

Where a very glossy appearance is wished, varnishes be- 
come necessary, but some difficulty has been experienced 
in getting these to remain attached to the skin in all weath- 
ers, because the humidity of rainy seasons melts gum- 
arabic when it is used as a varnish, and when white varnish 
is applied, both it and the gum-arabic fall off in pieces. To 
prevent the gum from falling off in this way, by its contract- 
ing, the solution should have about an eighth part of ox-gall 
mixed with it, and the surface of any body to be varnished 
should be washed with ox-gall and water before the varnish 
is applied, which will, almost to a certainty, prevent it from 
cracking and falling off. It must, however, be thoroughly 
dried before the varnish is applied. 

We may here state, that an animal the size of a fox or 
a cat, may be skinned, prepared, and finally set up, in the 



SKINNING. 217 

space of four or five hours, by a person who has had a little 
practice in the art of taxidermy, and that from ten to fif- 
teen minutes are all that will be required to skin an animal 
of the size just mentioned. 



SKINNING, PRESERVING AND MOUNTING BIRDS. 



SKINNING. 

'f IMMEDIATELY after a bird is killed the throat and 
nostrils should be stuffed with tow, cotton or fine 
rags, and a small quantity wound round the bill, to 
prevent the blood from staining the plumage ; but should 
any get on the feathers, notwithstanding this precaution, the 
sooner it is removed the better, which should be effected by 
a sponge which has been merely moistened in water. Too 
much dispatch cannot be used in removing the skin, if the 
bird is shot in a warm climate; but, in temperate regions, the 
bird may be allowed to cool. 

In proceeding to skin the bird it should be laid on its 
back and the feathers of the breast separated to the right 
and left, when a broad interval will be discovered, reachihg 
from the top to the bottom of the breast-bone. 

A sharp penknife, or scapel, must be inserted at the point 
of the bone, and cut the outer skin from thence to the vent, 
taking care not to penetrate so deep as the flesh, or upon the 
inner skin which covers the intestines. The skin will then 
easily be separated from the flesh, in larger specimens by the 
fingers, or in smaller ones by passing a small blunt instru- 
ment betwixt the skin and body, such as the end of the 
scalpel handle; with this you may reach the back. The 
thighs should now be pressed inwards, as in the common 
method of skinning a rabbit, and the skin turned back, so far 



218 TAXIDERMY. 

as to enable you to separate the legs from the body at the 
knee-joint. The skin is then pulled downwards as low as the 
rump, which is cut close by the insertion of the tail, but in 
such a manner as not to injure its feathers. The skin is now 
drawn upwards the length of the wings, the bones of which 
must also be cut at the shoulder-joints ; it is then pulled up 
till all the back part of the skull is laid bare, when the verte- 
brae of the neck are separated from the head, and the whole 
body is now separated from the skin. You next proceed to 
remove the brain, through the opening of the skull, for which 
purpose it may be enlarged by a hollow chisel, or other iron 
instrument. The eyes must then be taken out, by breaking 
the slender bones which separate the orbits from the top of 
the mouth, in which you may be assisted by pressing the eyes 
gently inwards, so as not to break them. In skinning the 
neck, great care must be taken not to enlarge the opening of 
the ears, and not to injure the eyelids. The whole of the flesh 
is next to be removed from the under mandible. 

Several species will not admit of the skin being thus pulled 
over their heads, from the smallness of their necks; some 
woodpeckers, ducks, etc., fall under this description; in which 
case a longitudinal incision is made under the throat, so as to 
admit of the head being turned out, which must be neatly 
sewed up before stuffing. The flesh from the head, wings, 
legs and rump, must then be carefully removed with a knife, 
and the cavities of the skull filled with cotton or tow. The 
whole inside of the skin, head, etc., must be well rubbed with 
arsenical soap, or preserving powder, or spirits of turpentine, 
or the solution of corrosive sublimate. When it is wished to 
stuff the bird, it may now be immediately done, as it will 
easily dry if in a warm climate ; but in low, damp countries, 
it will require artificial heat to do it effectually. 

When the skins are merely wished preserved, the bones of 
the legs and wings should be wrapped round with cotton or 
tow, so as to supply the place of the flesh j the skin is then 



SKINNING. 2 19 

inverted and hung up to dry, after using the arsenical soap, 
as above directed ; before doing which, in larger birds, a thread 
or small string may be drawn through the rump, and passed 
up the inside of the neck and drawn through the bill, to pre- 
vent the head from stretching too much by its own weight. 
In larger specimens, where cotton or tow is not easily to be 
met with, well dried hay may be used. 

The incision for removing the skin is frequently made under 
the wings. This may be done with marine birds to advantage. 
The penguins and divers may be skinned by making the in- 
cision in the back. 

The tongue should either be kept in the mouth, or sent 
home separately with the Thirds. 

The greatest care must be taken to prevent the fat and oily 
matter, so common to sea-birds, from getting on the feathers : 
pounded chalk will be found an excellent absorbent for ap- 
plying to these birds. 

In sending home specimens of birds, they should be each 
wrapped in paper and closely packed in a box ; and cam- 
phor, preserving powder, and strong aromatics, strewed 
amongst them, to prevent them from being attacked by in- 
sects ; and they ought to be kept in a very dry part of the 
vessel. 

It is of the utmost consequence to know the color of the 
eyes and legs of birds, and these things should be carefully 
noted the moment they are killed ; and it should also be men- 
tioned whether they are male or female ; such a memorandum 
ought to be attached to the birds by a ticket. The season of 
the year in which the bird is killed, must also be mentioned. 
It is also of much consequence to have good skeletons, and, 
for this purpose, the carcasses may be sent home in a bar- 
rel, either in spirits or a strong solution of salt and water. 

Mr. Salt, while in Abyssinia, packed his bird-skins between 
sheets of paper, in the same manner as a hortus siccus, or herb- 
arium, and they reached England in perfect safety, and made 



220 TAXIDERMY. 

excellent specimens when set up. In warm climates, the 
boxes should be well closed, and the seams filled with warm 
pitch on the outside, to prevent the intrusion of insects ; and 
the inside should be supplied with camphor, musk, or to- 
bacco-dust, which will prevent the attacks of the smaller 
insects. 

Till practice has given facility to the operator, it will 
assist in keeping the feathers clean, if, as he opens the skin 
of the breast, he pins pieces of paper or linen cloth on the 
outside; but, after a few trials, this will be unnecessary. 

Some of the marine fowls are so fat that there is much 
trouble in separating it from the skin, and, in warm weather, 
great attention will be required t prevent it from running 
on the feathers. As much as possible should be scraped 
off, in the first place, with a blunt table-knife or palate- 
knife, and a quantity of powdered chalk applied, to absorb 
what remains, which, when saturated with the oily matter, 
should be scraped off, and a fresh supply used ; after which 
a much larger proportion of the preserving powder should be 
applied than in other birds which are not fat. 

When shooting on the sea coast, if the ornithologist is not 
provided with these requisities for absorbing the oil, which 
flows quickly from any wounds'of the skin, he will find dry 
sand a tolerable substitute. 

If, however, after every precaution, the oily matter should 
get on the feathers, the sooner it is removed the better, as, in 
birds where the plumage is white, if it is allowed to become 
hardened it will produce a very disagreeable appearance ; and, 
besides, render that part particularly liable to the attack of 
insects. There are several effectual methods of removing the 
greasy stains ; the first, safest, and best is, by taking a quan- 
tity of diluted ox-gall or, where it cannot be commanded, 
sheep's-gall, or that of any other animal mix it with about 
double the quantity of water, and apply it with a sponge to 
the place which the fatty matter has touched, when it will 



SKINNINd. 221 

immediately remove it. The next is by using a solution of 
salts of tartar, or potash, or soda. This must be made very 
weak, not exceeding half a teaspoonful to a cup of water, 
which will have the same effect as the gall. Whichever of 
these are used, the place must be immediately afterwards 
washed in pure water, so as to leave none of the gall or alkaline 
substance remaining. The gall has a gummy tendency, and 
will glue together the fibers of the feathers, and, besides, it 
has a great attraction for moisture, and, in humid weather, 
will become damp, and therefore produce mould ; the other 
alkaline substances must also be used with much caution and 
quickness, because they have the power of changing the colors 
of the plumage, so that they are most useful in white plumage, 
and therefore should only be used on colored feathers, where 
gall cannot be procured. 

One general observation applies to the preservation of all 
animal skins, which is, they must be made perfectly dry, so 
that the sooner they are exposed to a free current of air the 
better; and unless they are speedily and thoroughly dried, the 
skin will become putrid and rotten, and the hair or feathers 
will consequently fall off. If a skin is properly dried, soon 
after it is killed, it will keep a considerable time without any 
preservative whatever, only it will be the more liable to be 
attacked by insects afterwards. 

The following excellent general directions for skinning are 
given by Mr. "Waterton: " While dissecting, it will be of use 
to keep in mind, that in taking off the skin from the body, 
by means of your fingers and little knife, you must try to 
shove it, in lieu of pulling it, lest you stretch it. 

" That yon must press as lightly as possible on the bird, 
and every now and then take a view of it, to see that the 
feathers, etc., are all right. 

"That when you come to the head, you must take care 
that the body of the skin rest on your knee, for if you allow it to 
dangle from your hand, its own weight will stretch it too much. 



222 TAXIDERMY. 

" That, throughout the whole operation, as fast as you de- 
tach the skin from the body, you must put cotton immediately 
betwixt the body and it, and this will effectually prevent any 
fat, blood, or moisture, from coming in contact with the plum- 
age. 

"As you can seldom get a bird without shooting it, a line 
or two on this head will be necessary. If the bird be still 
alive, press it hard with your finger and thumb, just behind 
the wings, and it will soon expire. Carry it by the legs, and 
then, the body being reversed, the blood cannot escape down 
the plumage and through the shot-holes. As blood will hare 
often issued out, before you have laid hold of the bird, find 
out the shot-holes, by dividing the feathers with your fingers, 
and blowing on them; and then, with your pen-knife, or the 
leaf of a tree, carefully remove the clotted blood, and put a 
little cotton on the hole. If, after all, the plumage has not 
escaped the marks of blood, or if it has imbibed slime from 
the ground, wash the part in water, without soap, and keep 
gently agitating the feathers with your fingers, till they are 
quite dry. Were you to wash them, and leave them dry by 
themselves, they would have a very mean and shriveled ap- 
pearance. 

"In the act of skinning a bird, you must either have it 
upon a table, or upon your knee; probably you will prefer 
your knee, because, when you cross one knee over the other, 
and have the bird upon the uppermost, you can raise it to 
your eye, or lower it, at pleasure, by means of the foot on the 
ground ; and then your knee will always move in unison with 
your body, by which much stooping will be avoided, and las- 
situde prevented." 

Stuffing Birds. The first thing to be done in stuffing is 
to replace the skull, after it haa been well anointed with the 
arsenical soap, and washed with the solution of corrosiv* sub- 
limate inside. The thread, with which the beak is tied, is 



STUFFING BIRDS. 223 

taken hold of by the left hand, and the head is repassed into 
the neck with the forefinger of the right hand, while the 
thread is pulled on the opposite side; and we are careful that 
the feathers, at the margin of the opening, do not enter with 
the edges of the skin. The bird is now laid on the table with 
the head turned towards the left hand, and the legs and wings 
adjusted to their proper situation. A flat piece of lead, about 
a pound in weight, is laid on the tail, while the feathers of 
the margins of the opening are raised by the forefinger and 
thumb of the left hand, to prevent their being soiled. The 
inside of the neck is now coated with the arsenical soap; flax 
is stuffed into it, but not too tightly. The back and rump 
are anointed, and the body should the.n be stuffed with tow, 
to about a third of the thickness required, so that the wire 
may have a sort of cushion to rest on. 

Four pieces of wire are then prepared, of the thickness pro- 
portionate to the size of the bird to be stuffed. The center- 
piece should be somewhat longer than the body of the bird. 
At about a fourth of its length a small ring is formed, by the 
assistance of the round pincers or plyers, and the other end is 
pointed with a file. This wire is oiled and introduced across 
the skull, and passed into the neck, through the center of the 
flax or tow with which it is stuffed, the ring being situated 
toward the anterior part of the skull, for the purpose of receiv- 
ing the points of each of the wires that are passed through 
the feet and thighs. 

The following is the mode in which this performation is 
effected : A hole is bored with a bradawl the caliber of the 
wire which it is intended to use. The wire, which is to con- 
tinue in the leg, is passed across the knee and brought out 
interiorly, and, placing it into the ring above mentioned, the 
same operation is performed on the other side. The extremi- 
ties of the wires of the legs, and the end of the central wire 
beyond the ring, are all twisted together with flat pincers, and 
then bent towards the tail. The tail-bearer is next formed, 



224 TAXIDERMY. 

which consists of the fourth piece of wire, with which an oval 
is formed, by twisting the two ends two or three turns, so 
that they may form a kind of fork, with the oval nearly the 
length of the body of the bird; the two points of the fork must 
be sharpened with a file, and near enough to enable them to 
enter the rump, through which they must pass, and their 
points will be concealed by the rectrices, or large straight tail 
feathers, while the oval is within the body of the bird. If the 
bird is large, the tail-bearer must be firmly attached to the 
interior wires, by twisting a small wire several times round 
both. But unless the bird be very large, it may remain 
quite free. 

All the parts of the skin at which we can come must be 
thoroughly rubbed with preserving soap, the rump in partic- 
ular, which should besides be soaked with the solution of 
corrosive sublimate. The stuffing is now proceeded with, by 
inserting chopped flax or tow, till it has attained its proper 
dimensions. The skin is brought together and sewed up, 
while we take the greatest care to separate the feathers at 
every stitch. 

The orbits of the eyes are next finished, by inserting, with 
small forceps and a short stuffing stick, a small quantity of 
chopped cotton, while attention is paid to round the eyelids 
properly. The glass eyes are now inserted, taking care to 
place them properly under the eyelids. But, before fixing the 
eye, a little calcareous cement must be used, to prevent them 
from coming out. If any part of the nictitating membrane 
is visible below, it must be pushed up with the steel point. 

The stuffing of the bird being now completed, the next 
thing is to place it either on a branch, or, if a bird which does 
not sit on trees, on a piece of plank; whichever of these it is, 
two holes are bored for the reception of the wires, which have 
been allowed to protrude from the soles of the feet, for fixing 
the bird. (See fig. 8.) These, of course, are pierced in such 
situations as are necessary for the attitude or position of the 



STUFFING BIRDS. 225 

legs. The wires are put through these holes, and twisted so 
as to secure the bird in its position. The attitude of the 
bird will, of course, depend upon the fancy and taste of the 
operator, and ought to be in conformity with the manners of 
the bird in a living state. 

The wire frame-work, above described, is the most simple 
of any in its construction, and is better adapted for small 
than large birds. Indeed, it will hardly suit those of the 
larger species. The following is another method of construct- 
ing the framework, which may be used either in large or 
small birds : 

Like the former it is constructed of four pieces of wire. 
The center piece should be double the length of the bird; it 
is bent at a third of its length in an oval form, and twisted 
two turns, the shortest end being passed into the oval, and 
then raised against the longer end, so as to produce a ring at 
the end, outside of the oval, large enough to admit the two 
wires which pass from the feet to the inside of the bird. It is 
now twisted a second time, and firmly united to the longer 
end, which ought to be straight, with a sharp point, effected 
by means of a file. As before directed, it is rubbed with oil, 
and forced through the stuffing of the neck. It ought to be 
so constructed, by measurement, that the oval part of the 
wire shall be in the center of the body inside. The wires of 
the feet and legs, as before directed, ought to be straight and 
pointed, and passed through the soles of the feet as before. 
When the point is penetrated, the other end of the wire may 
be bent, so that by means of it we may be able to assist in 
forcing up the remainder of the wire. The two internal ends 
of the foot-wires are twisted together, and curved within, so 
as to pass through the small circle or ring of the middle 
branch above the oval, to each side of which they are now 
attached with a piece of small string. 

The tail-bearer is constructed on the same principles, and 
attached in the same manner, as before described, and the 



226 TAXIDERMY. 

latter apparatus is introduced after the neck and back are 
finished in the stuffing. 

This practice of introducing the neck-wire, after the neck is 
stuffed, was first adopted at the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, 
and is now invariably adopted in that establishment in prefer- 
ence to introducing it before the neck is stuffed. The neck 
of a swan or other long-necked and large birds, are even done 
so. It is unquestionably the best plan which has hitherto 
been discovered, as it preserves the cylindrical shape of the 
neck. 

Mr. Bullock's Method of Stuffing Birds. Mr. Bullock, 
of the London Museum, Egyptian Hall, had another method 
of arranging the wires which, after what we have already said, 
will be easily comprehended by a reference to Fig. 8, where 
we have given a figure of his mode. After the skin is taken 
off and prepared, different sized nealed iron wires are pro- 
cured, according to the size of the bird they are to support. 
The skin is laid on its back without stretching it ; cut two 
pieces of wire, the one rather longer than the bird, and the 
other shorter, so as not to reach to the head of the bird, twist 
them together, sharpen the ends of the longer by means of a 
file, and pass on* end through the rump and the other 
through the crown of the head, near the base of the bill. 
Care must be taken not to extend the neck beyond its ordinary 
length a very common fault in most preservers. Lay a little 
tow along the back of the skin for the wire to rest on, then take 
two other pieces of strong wire and file them to a point at one 
end; these are passed through the soles of the feet and up the 
center of the leg-bone, or tarsus. When within the body, 
they are to be fastened to the first wires by twisting them 
together, which, when accomplished, may be supposed to 
represent the back bone. The wire should be left two or 
three inches out of the soles of the feet, to fasten them in a 
standing position, as before directed. Two smaller wires are 



STUFFING BIRDS. 227 

then passed through the wings, as in the legs, and afterwards 
fastened to the back wires a little higher up than the leg 
wires, taking care that no part of the skin is to be extended 
beyond its natural position. 

A New and Easier Method of Bird Skinning and Stuff- 
ing. A fair specimen being obtained, take common cotton wad- 
ding, and with an ordinary paint-brush stick plug the throat, 
nostrils, and, in large birds, the ears, with it, so that when the 
skin is turned no juices may flow and spoil the feathers ; you 
must then provide yourself with the following articles : A 
knife of this kind, which is very common ; a pair of cutting 
plyers, a pair of strong scissors, of a moderate size ; a button- 
hook, a marrow spoon, and a hand-vice. With these, a needle 
and thread, and a sharpener of some kind, to give your knife 
an occasional touch, you are prepared, so far as implements 
go. Then provide yourself with annealed iron wire of various 
sizes; some you may buy ready for use, some not; but you can 
anneal it yourself by making it red hot in the fire, and letting it 
cool in the air. Common hemp is the next article, cotton wad- 
ding, pounded whitening, and pounded alum, or chloride of 
lime; as to the poisons which are used, they will be spoken of 
by and by. You should also have a common bradawl or two, 
and some pieces of quarter-inch pine whereon to stand the 
specimens when preserved, if to be placed as walking on a 
plane; if not, some small pieces of twigs or small branches of 
trees should be kept ready for use, of various sizes, according 
to the size of the bird. Cedar, or common laurel cut in 
December, will be found to answer best, but this must be 
regulated by fancy and the requirements of the case ; oak 
boughs are sometimes of good shape. 

The best time for preserving specimens is in spring, because 
then the cock birds are in the best feather, and the weather is 
not too warm. In mild weather three days is a good time to 
keep a bird, as then the skin will part from the flesh easily. 



228 TAXIDERMY. 

If a specimen has bled much over the feathers, so as to dam- 
age them, wash them carefully but thoroughly with warm 
water and a sponge, and immediately cover them with 
pounded whitening, which will adhere to them. Dry it as 
it hangs upon them slowly before the fire, and then triturat- 
ing the hardened lumps gently between the fingers, the 
feathers will come out almost as clean as ever. To tast 
whether the specimen is too decomposed to skin, try the 
feathers about the auriculars, and just above the tail, and if 
they do not move you may safely proceed. 

Lay the bird on his back, and, parting the feathers from the 
insertion of the neck to the tail, you will find in most birds a 
spare space. Cut the skin the whole length of this, and 
passing the finger under it on either side, by laying hold of 
one leg and bending it forward, you will be able to bring the 
bare knee through the opening you have made ; with your 
scissors cut it through at the joint; pull the shank still adher. 
ing to the leg till the skin is turned back as far as it will go; 
denude the bone of flesh and sinew, wrap a piece of hemp 
round it, steep in a strong solution of the pounded alum, and 
then pull the leg by the claw, by which means the skin will 
be brought again to its place. 

After having served both legs alike, skin carefully round 
the back, cutting off and leaving in the tail with that into 
which the feathers grow, that is, the "Pope's nose." Serve 
the wing bones the same as the leg, cutting them off close to 
the body, and turn the skin inside out down to the head. 
The back of the skull will then appear, and you will now find 
it of advantage, as soon as you have got the legs and tail free, 
to tie a piece of string round the body, and hang it up as a 
butcher skins a sheep. Make in the back of the skull a cut 
with your knife, which you can turn back like a trap-door, 
and with the marrow-spoon entirely clear out the brains; 
Having done this, wash the interior of the skull thoroughly 
with the alum, and fill it with cotton wadding. The 



STUFFING BIRDS. 229 

next operation requires care and practice namely, to get 
out the eyes. This is done by cutting cautiously until 
the lids appear, being careful not to cut the eye itself, and 
you can then, with a forceps, which you will likewise find 
useful, pull each from its socket; wipe the orifice carefully, 
wash it with the alum solution, and fill it with cotton wad- 
ding. Cut off the neck close to the skull, wash the stump, 
and the whole of the interior of the skin with the alum, and 
the skinning is done. Now comes the stuffing. The ordinary 
mode used by bird-preservers is a simple one, and answers 
very well; there is a French method, however, which has its 
advantages, and will be adverted to hereafter. Take a piece 
of the wire suitable to the size of the bird (Fig. 11) that is, as 
large as the legs will carry and bend it into the following form, 
a representing the neck, J, the body, and c, the junction of the 
tail, allowing sufficient length of neck for the wire lo pass 
some distance beyond the head, and being sharpened at each 
end, which may be done by obliquely cutting it with the ply- 
ers. Wind upon this wire hemp to the size of the bird's body, 
which you should have lying by you to judge from, and it will 
present something of the appearance of Fig. 12. You can shape it 
with the hand, but be careful not to make it the least too large; 
and, after you have finished it to your satisfaction, 'you may 
singe it, as the poulterer would singe a fowl, which will make 
all neat; but be particular to wind the hemp very tight. Then 
take the skin, lay it on the table on its back, and pass the wire 
at the head into the marrow where the neck is cut off, through 
above the roof of the mouth, and out at one nostril, and draw 
it up close to the skull; turn the skin back, and draw it down 
over the hemp body, and pass the wire spike, protruding at 
the lower end, through the flesh upon which the tail grows, 
about the centre, and rather below than above. The skin 
may now be adjusted to the hemp body, and sown up, begin- 
ning from the top of the breast, and being particularly careful 
always to take the stitch from inside, otherwise you will draw 



230 TAXIDERMY. 

in the feathers at every pull. At first sew it very loose, and 
then, with the button-hook, draw it together by degrees. 

With the plyers cut two lengths of wire, long enough to 
pass up. the legs and into the neck, and leave something over 
to fasten the bird by to the board or spray upon which it is to 
be placed. The next operation requires some address and 
great practice, namely, the passing the wire up the legs. This 
is done by forcing it into the center of the foot, and up the 
back of the legs, into the hemp body, through it obliquely, 
and into the neck, until it is pretty firm. In doing this, you 
must remember the ordinary position of a bird when alive, 
and, therefore, instead of passing the wire the whole way 
within the skin of the leg, when you get to the part whore you 
have cut off the bone, that is, the knee- joint, pass it through 
the skin to the outside, and in again, through the skin, from 
the outside, where the knee would come naturally in the atti- 
tude of standing or perching it makes little difference which. 
This is essential, because, if the wire be passed the whole way 
inside the skin, it produces a wrong placing of the legs. Fig. 
13 will illustrate this, a representing the line in which the wire 
should run. The bird is now stuffed, and you may at once 
place it upon a spray or board, as the case may be. In placing 
a bird upon a spray, the first joint should be bent almost on a 
level with the foot; and, in placing a bird on a board, one leg 
ehould be placed somewhat behind the other. If the wings 
are intended to be closed, as is usually the case, bring them 
into their place, which may be done by putting the fingers 
under them, and pressing them together over the back; you 
may then pass a needle, or large pin, of which you should 
have a good supply by you, through the thick part of the 
upper wing into the body, and so by the lower wing, and if 
you allow these to protrude, you may fasten to one of them a 
piece of thread, and wind it carefully and lightly round the 
body, which will keep the feathers in their places, and this 
thread should be kept on for a fortnight or three weeks, until 



STUFFING BIRDS. 231 

the bird is dry. The tail should be kept in its place, also, for 
the same time, by a piece of thin wire bent over it. 

The only thing now to do is to put in the eyes. The color, of 
course, depends on the bird, and these you may buy at any 
fishing-tackle store. If you do not use eyes too large, you 
will find little difficulty; the juice of the lids will act as a 
sufficient cement. As to the mounting, I shall say nothing 
about that now, but shall only advert shortly to a French 
method of preserving, which is more difficult, but has the ad- 
vantage of superior firmness. It is this: Measuring from the 
insertion of the neck to the tail, make a wire frame. Upon 
this wind hemp for the neck only, and place in the skin in 
the same way as before directed, only that, instead of one wire 
being passed through that in which the tail grows, it is a fork 
that is passed through it. Having formed this frame, fit on 
to it two legs, and after the frame itself is in the skin, pass 
these from the inside down each leg, instead of from the out- 
side, and fasten them on to the frame with the plyers, by 
twisting the ends round the frame. This will make all firm, 
and you can then fill the body with cut hemp, and sew up. 
One word as to the other preparations used by bird preservers. 
These are either corrosive sublimate or regulus of arsenic, 
which is yellow and of a consistence like butter. As I have 
said before, in cold weather, when there are no flies about, 
alum will do perfectly well; in warm weather either of the two 
others may be used. I should prefer the former corrosive 
sublimate as the other is " messy," and the chief object is to 
dry up anything which can be attacked by flesh-seeking insects. 
When you have finished your bird, you can lay the feathers 
with a large needle it is as well to have one fixed in a handle 
and kept for this purpose and, tying the two mandibles of 
the bill together with a piece of thread until the whole speci 
men has hardened and dried, the work is done, 



232 TAXIDERMY. 



THE ART OP MOUNTING BIRDS, DRIED SKINS, FEATHERS, 

ETC. 




MOUNTING IN GENERAL. 

E will suppose that a proficiency, from practice, has 
!> . been attained in the art of bird-preserving, according 
to the instructions given. The proficiency in preserv- 
ing may apply only to the preservation and the form, great 
and necessary things, no doubt, as preliminaries; but, like 
matter without manner, of little avail alone. For attitude, I 
would say, as has been said to many a young artist, go to 
Nature, and there you will find an original in perfection. 
Would you make a willow- wren look like a willow-wren, watch 
him as he there hangs upon the weeping birch, or stands on a 
bough peering in quest of food? Each bird has its own man- 
ner> and if you cannot hit the manner, or make your stuffed 
skin so far amenable as to assume the attitude, it is either ill- 
stuffed, or you want the requisite knowledge of that which 
you should copy. 

Bird Pinned Up. Having fixed on the attitude, it now 
only remains to put the feathers into their natural order as 
smoothly and regularly as possible; and to keep them in this 
state they should be bound around with small fillets of muslin 
fastened with pins. The bird should then be thoroughly 
dried, by placing it in an airy situation, if in summer; or if 
in winter, near the fire, but not so close as to affect the natural 
oil contained in the feathers. The want of proper attention 
in drying ruins many a fine specimen; if long kept damp 
putridity ensues despite all preservatives, when the skin will 
become rotten, and the feathers will soon fall off; besides, the 
mold and long-continued damp change the chemical properties 
pf the preservatives u$ed. 



MOUNTING IN GENERAL. 233 

After the bird has been thoroughly dried, the fillets are 
removed; the wire which protruded from the head is cut off 
as close to the skull as possible, with the wire-cutting pincers 
elsewhere shown. It must then be attached to a circular, or 
other shaped piece of wood, with the generic and specific 
name and sex, as well as its country and locality attached to 
it, on a small ticket, when it may be placed in a museum. 

Young hands commonly suppose that a bird should stand 
bolt upright, with the legs almost perpendicular, .or at right 
angles to the perch. This is a great mistake, and never to be 
found in nature. Do we stand rigid, like a foot-soldier on 
drill? Does not a bird, as well as ourselves, accommodate 
itself to the thing on which it rests? Assuredly it does; for 
birds do not, as a young bird-stuffer endeavors to do, find 
always a perch to rest upon in the plane of the horizon. It 
therefore follows that, as he keeps himself upright, his legs 
must accommodate themselves to his perch. So in the ground- 
birds there is a gentle slope backwards from the hind toe, the 
balance being preserved in both cases by throwing the body 
forward in proportion. It is not uncommon to see birds pre- 
served with wings and tail spread. J\ r ow, ordinarily speaking, 
this is very objectionable, because very unnatural. A bird 
preserved is supposed to represent a bird in a state of repose, 
that is, not in flight; the only modification allowable being 
with regard to those birds whose manner it may be to have 
the wings more or less open on occasions; thus the falcon tribe, 
supposing they are represented as devouring a quarry, or two 
birds toying with each other. It may be that a bird essentially 
aerial, like the wift, or perhaps some of the terns or the frigate 
bird, may be represented as actually on the wing. In this 
case, of course, the wings must be spread; and this is best 
done by passing a wire, not too thick, from the base of the 
quill-feathers on the under side, alongside the bone into the 
body, where it should be carefully and coaxingly inserted to- 
wards the tail until you feel that you have a pretty good hold, 



234 TAXIDERMY. 

You may then pass it carefully under the longest quill-feather, 
and through the back of the case, and fasten it by bringing it 
back again through and clinching it, concealing it so by the 
oblique position of the bird that it is not detectable. It is 
obvious that by passing the wire alongside the bone, you may 
bend the wings to any angle you please. With regard to the 
case there are two methods: one a bell-glass, which, glass being 
now so reasonable, is certainly a very pretty and reasonable 
way of mounting, but inapplicable to birds which are to be 
placed on a wall, or to be represented flying; although this 
may be managed by attaching one wire from the point of the 
wing to a twig sufficiently firm, which it will scarcely appear 
to touch, if managed adroitly. It is likewise indispensable 
that a bird for a shade should be stuffed so well as to look 
nicely in all positions. One thing must always be remembered, 
do not have your case a shade too large, just clear the object so 
as not to stint it for room; and in flat cases this applies chiefly 
to depth, for it should have sufficient light, or it will not look 
well. Wooden cases should be made as slight (in thickness) 
as is consistent with firmness; well-seasoned white deal is best; 
and the case should be formed of back, top and bottom, open 
at the front and sides, and at each corner of the front two 
slight deal supports, rabbited on their inner edges, and pre- 
senting on the whole a good appearance. 

Having the case prepared, it should be papered with ordi- 
nary demy paper on the top and back within, and, when the 
paste is dry, washed over carefully with size and whitening, 
tinted with a little stone-blue; some add some touches of white 
subsequently to represent clouds, the ground representing the 
air; some also paste a landscape on the back, but this must be 
good, or you had better have plain color. The bird to be 
placed in this case is either perching, standing, or flying. For 
the latter, directions have been given. As to the two former, 
the perch must be firmly fixed in the small piece of flat wood 
upon which it previously stood, and put in upon it, the wood 



MOUNTING IN GENERAL. 235 

being fastened to the bottom of the case, either by screwing 
from below, from above, or gluing with stout glue, or by pass- 
ing wire through two holes in the bottom of the case and the 
wood, and clinching above. In this case, or in screwing from 
below, let the wire or the screw into the wood, and putty over, 
and so if the bird is represented standing. The bird being 
fixed, the next thing is the decorating or " weeding," as it is 
technically called, and here we enter upon a subject so entirely 
of taste and fancy, that no fixed rules as to the disposition can 
in all cases be given. One rule applies equally to this as to 
landscape painting, viz., that there should always be a com- 
pensation of objects. That is, if you have a tuft of grass on 
one side which rises towards the top of the case, there should 
be something in the lower opposite corner to strike the eye, 
but not to rise above midway up at the furthest, and the 
ground, or floor, should not be overfurnished with mosses, 
etc. After the bird is fixed, the whole bottom should be care- 
fully glued over with thin glue, taking care, where the bird's 
feet are on the bottom, not to touch the toes with the glue. 
Some fine-sifted sand or gravel should then be sifted over it, 
and it will adhere wherever the glue has touched; for this 
purpose a small tin shovel is best, about two inches wide by 
four long, with a handle in proportion, which can be made to 
order at any tinman's for a trifle. 

Everything used in " weeding" should be baked in a slow 
oven, otherwise spider's eggs and minute creatures, which are 
pretty sure to be contained in it, will make their appearance 
after the case is closed in the disagreeable form of destroying 
your specimen. Moss, etc., by being slowly dried, will also 
keep its color better. Yellow moss, found on the roofs of old 
barns, and dark gray of the same species, are very generally 
useful; and where yellow moss cannot be had, the white or 
gray may be colored with chrome, and looks as well. Water 
plants fade, being more or less succulent, and hence a little 
common water-color with gum will be used with advantage 



236 TAXIDERMY. 

and look less artificial than oil plant, which is often used. 
Fern looks very pretty as an adjunct for heath-birds, but it 
should be dried gradually and carefully, when quite full 
grown, and a small touch of light green, permanent white 
forming a portion of it, will give it a freshness and more 
natural appearance. Grass in s,eed (not in flower) of various 
kinds is also a very pretty addition; but bird preservers have 
a habit of using dyed grass, and yellow and red Xerantliy- 
mum, or Everlasting, which is certainly to be avoided, and 
indeed anything which is unnatural. If it is wished to intro- 
duce a lump of earth, or an apparent bank, a piece of thick 
brown paper, bent to the requisite shape, and glued over and 
covered with sifted sand or gravel, has a very good effect; but 
insects and butterflies, or artificial flowers, unless they are 
extremely natural, should certainly be avoided. Regard 
should also be had to the season at which the bird is usually 
seen. For instance, summer birds are, of course, surrounded 
by green and living objects, but autumn or winter visitants 
by decaying or dead herbage. It has often been made an ex- 
periment to represent snow, but it is difficult to obtain any- 
thing white enough, and at the same time of a crystalline 
character, which, of course, it should be. Potato farina 
nicely dried, mixed with Epsom salts pounded very fine, does 
not make a bad substitute; but the real difficulty lies behind, 
namely, in fixing it, and, more than all, the least damp takes 
very much from its appearance, if it does not destroy the 
effect, and hence we must have recourse to mineral aid, and 
any very white mineral powder mingled with pounded glass 
is perhaps best. It is unnecessary to say that the herbage 
upon which it is meant to rest should be touched all over with 
paste, not glue, and the white mixture shaken over and left 
to dry. What will heighten the effect very much, if prettily 
executed, is a black landscape with a dark leaden sky and 
nearly black earth mingled with moss. To represent water, a 
piece of looking-glass, surrounded by moss, etc., answers very 



MOUNTING DRIED SKINS. 237 

well. The bills and legs of birds should be always varnished, 
and where the natural color fades after death it should be 
restored by a thin coat of oil-color of the required shade. The 
bird being fixed and the case garnished, nothing remains but 
to put in the glass; this is in three pieces, one for the front 
and a piece at each end. This can be pasted in with very 
strong paper round the edge, advancing sufficiently over the 
glass to hold it. In doing this it is not necessary to be very 
particular to avoid pasting the glass, as after it is dried it can 
be wiped clean with a damp cloth. The last operation is a 
very simple one, and done in a few minutes. You must pro- 
cure some black spirit-varnish, which you can make yourself 
by dissolving the best black sealing-wax in spirits of wine, and 
should be kept corked; when this is good it acts as paint and 
varnish at the same time, and dries as fast as it is put on. One 
or two brass rings screwed on at the top of the back of the case 
will finish the bird, and if the case be nicely and closely made, 
there is no limit of time to which the preservation of the speci- 
men may not extend. 

Method of Mounting Dried Skins. "We must now say 
something respecting the setting up of skins which have been 
preserved by travelers, and sent home from distant parts. 

The general method is exactly the same as in stuffing recent 
specimens. There are, however, some preliminary steps, 
which it is necessary to know. 

If the specimen sent home has been partially stuffed, our 
first business is to undo the stitches, if it has been sewed 
which was an unnecessary process. We then remove the 
whole cotton or tow from the inside, by the assistance of for- 
ceps, and from the neck with a small piece of wire, twisted or 
hooked at the end. Having finished this, small balls of wet 
cotton are placed in the orbits of the eyes, and the legs and 
feet are wrapped round with wet cotton or linen rags. A 
damp cloth is then thrown over the bird, and it is allowed to 



238 TAXIDERMY. 

remain in this state till next day. The neck and body are 
then filled with wet linen or cotton, and it will be ready for 
commencing setting up in four or five hours. 

The eyes are now put in, as directed in the recent subjects, 
and then stuffed in exactly the same manner. Some difficulty 
will, however, be experienced with respect to the leg-v/ires, 
and it will require more time and care, from the dryness of the 
legs, to get the wire to penetrate. Having proceeded so far 
as to get the bird generally formed, the wings are next adjusted; 
this also is frequently difficult, owing to the stiffness of the 
tendons, and want of proper attention in skinning and drying 
them at first. Indeed, with some of the South American 
birds, a proper adjustment of the wings is found impracti- 
cable, owing to the attempts of the native Indians of Guyana, 
who seldom dispose them properly. 

When these skins frequently exceedingly valuable from 
their rarity are undone, to be remounted, it is oftentimes 
found utterly impossible to get the wings to take a natural 
set, in which case there is no other remedy but cutting them 
off close to the body, and fixing them anew. The scapulars 
are separated, they are softened with damp cloths, and then 
wrapped up with bands of sheet lead, to give them a proper 
set. When we have got them in their natural shape, they 
must be fixed to the sides by cement and cotton, and a long 
pin through each, with the head concealed amongst the feath- 
ers. The scapulars, which we hare cut off, must then be 
cemented on, and they will effectually cover the joining of the 
wings. The bird being now arranged, and all the feathers 
adjusted, it is wrapped round with small bands of fine linen 
or muslin, and set aside till thoroughly dry. 

Should any feathers be disengaged during the mounting, 
they must be kept, and, when the bird is dry, we can replace 
them in their proper situations with a pair of forceps, after 
they have been touched on their shafts with the cement; the 



MOUNTING OF BIRDS. 239 

feathers around the place in which we intend to insert them, 
must be held up with the probing-needle. 

If any of the feathers are deranged in mounting, and have 
got a wrong set, the only way to remedy the defect is to pull 
them out with forceps, and re-insert them with cement. 

Of Mounting Birds, Feather by Feather. Rare birds 
are frequently received from foreign countries, the skins of 
which are in such a state of decay, that it is impossible to 
mount them by the ordinary processes above described. The 
only way in which they can be preserved, is to mount them 
feather by feather, which, however, is a very tedious method. 
It is as follows: 

Procure a piece of soft pliable wire, such as is used by bell- 
hangers; or take some of the ordinary wire used, and make it 
red-hot in the fire, and allow it to cool gradually, when it will 
become quite pliable. Take five pieces of this, of different 
lengths, and form them into the skeleton of a body; namely, 
two for the back, one on each eide, and one to represent the 
breast bone. Imitate the shape of the bird's body, as nearly 
as possible. The wires must be roughened with a file, at the 
place where all the wires meet, at the neck and rump; and 
first wrap the place next the neck round with strong thread 
or fine brass wire. Two pieces intended for the back must 
bend gently downwards, and be gradually separated from 
each ether towards the center, and brought together again at 
the place intended for the rump, where they must intersect 
each other, and be twisted two or three times, to keep them 
in their place; they are then spread out as supports for the 
tail; the side pieces are next formed, so as to represent the 
natural bulge of a bird's body, and attached to the rump; the 
piece representing the breast is then formed, joined at the 
rump, and afterwards continued as long as the other tail- 
pieces, to support the center of the tail; while at the front 
extremity a piece is left, for the purpose of forming a neck to 



240 TAXIDERMY. 

which to attach the head. The log-wires are attached to the 
side-wires, being rolled round them for several turns, making 
a framework the shape of the bird. 

After this body has been properly formed, it must be 
wrapped round with tow-sliver, and the neck thickened to 
its required dimensions. When this is accomplished, the 
head, legs, wings and tail are softened in the usual manner ; 
the eyes are then fixed in with some cotton introduced into 
the orbits, with a little of the cement. The wings and tail 
are now placed on a table, with a flat leaden weight above 
each, to restore them to their natural shape. The leg-wires 
are then passed through the legs, commencing at the top, and 
bringing them out at the soles of the feet, and left with a 
piece extending beyond the claws. 

The tail is now fixed on, by first attaching to it a quantity 
of cotton with the cement, and, when dry, it is fixed to the 
part intended as the . rump. 

The feet of the bird must be fixed into a piece of wood, as 
a perch, the ends of which must be left some inches be- 
yond the body. The end next the tail is fixed into a 
table-vice, with the belly upwards, and the head pointing 
towards the operator. The feathers are now put on, com- 
mencing, under the tail, or crissum, with what are termed 
the under-tail coverts ; a coating of cement must be previ- 
ously laid on, to attach the feathers with. It is proceeded 
with upwards to the breast, and finally the length of the 
neck, taking care to put the proper feathers on their respect- 
ive sides, as the side-feathers have all an inclination to one 
side. The bird is now turned with the back up, still keep- 
ing the head towards the stuffer ; and the wings are fixed on 
with cement, and pins forced th rough the beards of the 
feathers to conceal the heads. When this is done, put on the 
feathers of the rump, and proceed upwards, as has been done 
with the belly. After reaching the top of the neck, the head 



PRESERVATION OF COLORS. 241 

is then fixed on with some cotton immersed in the cement, 
and allowed to dry before attempting to put on the feathers. 

In this mode of mounting a bird there are several things 
which must be attentively adhered to ; these are first, not 
to put the feathers too thick, for there is a danger of running 
short ; secondly, all the shafts of the feathers must have a 
small bit cut off the tip, so as to admit the cement and to 
give them a firmer hold ; and thirdly, that the feathers should 
all occupy their respective parts ; and fourthly, that they 
should be arranged as they are in nature on these parts, as 
the disposition of every part of the body is peculiar to itself. 

At first, this mode of setting up birds will be found a 
difficult task, but, by a little practice and experience, it will 
become familiar and comparatively easy, although it will 
always be found a tedious process. We have seen some spec- 
imens set up in this way, which we could hardly detect from 
those mounted in the ordinary manner. 

Besides what we have already said concerning the stuffing 
and preparing of birds, there are many details connected 
with particular species which demand our attention, and 
which can only be described as regarding that species. It 
will, however, be impossible for us to enter into all these mi- 
nutely, but only give a few examples as general guides. We 
shall take these in systematic succession. 

Preservation of Colors. In the preservation of the 
feathers of birds, little else is required to prevent the dissi- 
pation of their colors than to keep them as much as possible 
from air and light. These two agents, which were indispen- 
sible to their beauty and perfection in a living state, now 
exercise their influence as destroyers, and that influence will 
sooner or later work its ends according to the quality, text- 
ure, or color of the object with which it is contending. The 
feathers are now deprived of two agents, which in a living 
state contributed to their vigor and their beauty, namely, the 



242 TAXIDERMY. 

internal circulating juices which they received from the body 
of the animal, and the external application of oil by the bill 
of the bird, supplied from a gland which is placed over the 
rump of all birds. 

The colors of the rapacious tribes are not so evanescent as 
those of many others, as they, for the most part, are com- 
posed of intense browns and blacks, which are not so easily 
absorbed by light or air, so that they continue for a very long 
period without any sensible difference. There are, however, 
certain other points which are liable to almost immediate 
change of color after the death of the animals, and these are 
the cere and skin of the legs and feet, and the naked skin on 
the heads and necks of vultures and their congeners. We 
shall treat of these individually. 

Now, as all these colors which we have described are liable 
to change immediately after death, it is evident that consider- 
able nicety will be required to give the preserved specimen 
the appearance of nature. These must, therefore, be supplied 
artificially with the Tarnish colors, which we have particu- 
larly described in their proper place, as also the combinations 
for the formation of compound colors. The reddish-brown 
color mentioned, of which the fold is composed, must be 
touched by a mixture of the scarlet varnish, with a little pow- 
dered burnt umber, and the blue streaks with which it is 
traversed, colored above with cobalt blue. All the varnish 
colors have a tendency to shine, which, it will be evident, is 
not the character of any part of the skin or earuncle of the 
bird described. As soon, therefore, as it is thoroughly dry, 
which will be in about an hour, the whole surface must be 
gently rubbed with very fine sand-paper, which will com- 
pletely remove the gloss and give the appeance of nature. 

Some nicety will be required in painting betwixt the hairs, 
but it can be easily managed with a little caution. Some- 
times these hairs are liable to become brown, in which case 
they can be touched with the black varnish. 



BIRDS' EGGS AND NESTS. 243 

As these birds are inhabitants of warm climates, some care 
is requisite after killing them, to prevent decay ; the tendons 
of the legs should be extracted to prevent their being attacked 
by moths, and their place supplied by some cotton and pre- 
servatives. The tendons are extracted by means of a longi- 
tudinal incision made behind the tarsus. The edges of this 
incision can easily be brought together when the bird is under 
the process of preparation. 



COLLECTING AND PRESERVING BIRDS' 
Y<^ EGGS AND NESTS. 

^^P^EW objects of natural history are more interesting 
&$U& ^ an ^ e nes * s f bi^s. To the reflecting naturalist 
*$ ! \$& they open up a wide field for inquiry. Speaking of 
the examination of birds, in the exercise of their me- 
chanical arts of constructing nests, Professor Rennie says: 
" This work is the business of their lives the duty which 
calls forth that wonderful ingenuity which no experience can 
teach, and which no human skill can rival. The infinite 
variety of modes in which the nests of birds are constructed, 
and the exquisite adaptation of the nest to the peculiar habits 
of the individual, offer a subject of almost exhaustless inter- 
est." The number and variety of the eggs of birds are curious 
subjects of contemplation, and should be carefully noted 
whenever opportunity offers. They are as essential to the per- 
sonal history of the species, as any other part of our inquiries. 
The eggs are emptied of their contents by making a very 
small hole at each end with a point. By blowing at one of 
the ends, the contents will escape by the other, unless the 
young has been already formed ; in which case a larger hole 
must be made in the side of the egg, and the contents removed 



244 TAXIDERMY. 

with a small hook. The hole should then be stopped up by 
pasting a little goldbeater's leaf over it. The eggs are then 
either returned to their nest, in which they ought to be 
cemented, or should be fixed down by one side to cards, with 
the name and locality attached. 

The best manner of conveying loose eggs to a distance, is 
to put some cotton at the bottom of the nest, and then another 
layer above them. The nests should all be put in separate 
boxes if possible, and so packed that the pressure of the lid 
may not injure the eggs, or a box with several compartments 
should be used, taking care that each is carefully marked. It 
would also be of consequence to have the nests attached to 
the branches, with those species which build on trees, which 
will enable us to trace the ingenious means employed by 
those little animals in constructing their habitations. In 
sending home specimens from a foreign country, the seams of 
the box should be covered by pitched cloth to protect them 
from the influence of moisture. 

To preserve the shells of eggs, first take care to clear them 
of their contents; get a small, fine-pointed common syringe, 
such as is sold in toy-shops for a penny or twopence, and in- 
ject the specimen with water until it comes out quite clean. 
When an egg has been partly hatched or addled, the removal 
of the contents generally includes that of the internal mem- 
brane or pellicle; this makes the shell weaker. When the 
specimens are quite clean internally, and have become dry 
(which will be in a day or two), take the syringe and inject 
them with a strong solution of isinglass (with a little sugar- 
candy added to prevent its cracking); blow this out again 
whilst warm. Let the shell get dry, and then wash the out- 
side with a soft wet cloth to remove saline particles, dirt from 
the nest, etc. This method varnishes the inside, and the first 
specimen on which it has been tried was the before-mentioned 
hedge-accentor's egg, which is to this day as bright in color as 
a fresh specimen. 



TORTOISES AND TURTLES. 245 

Also in a pair of nightjar's eggs, of which species the deli- 
cate gray tint is particularly evanescent, one was injected in 
the manner described, and the other was not; in the first the 
gray is still perfectly defined, in the other it has entirely dis- 
appeared. Eggs which have lost their internal pellicle become 
strengthened by this process, and those which have not lost 
their color greatly improved. 



SKINNING, PRESERVING, AND SETTING UP REPTILES, 
AND MOLLUSCOUS ANIMALS, ETC. 




TORTOISES AND TURTLES. 



The first operation is to separate the back 
and breast shells with a strong short knife, or chisel, 
If the force of the hand is inadequate, a mallet may 
be used, taking care not to strike so hard as to crack the shell. 

These two bony plates being covered by the skin, or by 
scales, the scapula, and all the muscles of the arm and neck, 
in place of being attached to the ribs and spine, are placed 
below, from which cause the tortoise has been termed a retro- 
verted animal. The vertebral extremity of the scapula is 
articulated with the shield, and the opposite extremity of the 
clavicle with the breast-plate in such a manner that the 
shoulders form a ring for the passage of the windpipe and 
gullet. 

After the turtle is opened, all the flesh which adheres to the 
breast-plate, and also to the upper shell, is removed, while 
attention is paid to the parts as above described. The head, 
fore-feet, and tail are skinned as in quadrupeds; but none of 
these must be removed from the upper shell, but left attached. 

All the fleshy parts being removed, the shells are washed 



246 TAXIDERMY. 

out with a sponge, and carefully dried. They are then slighty 
rubbed with the arsenical soap. 

Stuffing. Wires are now passed through the middle of 
the legs, after the skin has been rubbed with the preservative. 
The skull is returned to its place, and the whole of the head, 
neck, and legs stuffed with chopped flax or tow. The parts 
of the skin which have been cut are then sewed together. The 
back and breast-plates are then united by four small holes, 
being bored at their edges, and united by strings or small 
wires. The junction of the bones may then be attached with 
the cement, colored so as to correspond with the shell. 

If the calipash is dirty, it may be cleaned with a slight 
solution of nitric-acid and water; afterwards clean washed, 
oiled, and then rubbed hard with a woolen rag, to give it a 
polish. 

CROCODILES AND LIZARDS IN GEN- 
ERAL. 

Skinning. All this tribe are skinned in the same manner 
as quadrupeds. Care is, however, required in skinning the 
tails of the smaller species, as they are very liable to break. 
The skins being of a dry nature, require but little of the pre- 
servative. After they are thoroughly dried they will keep a 
very long time without decay. 

Stuffing. Stuff them as directed for quadrupeds. They 
admit of but little variety of attitude. The small species are 
exceedingly apt to change color in drying, which must be 
imitated with the colored varnishes, and afterwards dimmed 
with sand-paper. To keep them in their natural colors, they 
should be preserved in spirits. 

The skins of such as are glossy should be varnished after 
they are perfectly dry. 



SERPENTS IN GENERAL. 247 



SERPENTS IN GENERAL. 

Skinning. In skinning serpents there is some nicety re- 
quired, to cut them so as not to disfigure the scales; the open- 
ing should be made in the side, commencing at the termina- 
tion of the scales; and they should on no account be divided, 
as upon their number the species is mostly determined. 

It is a very frequent practice to send home serpents with- 
out the head, which renders them quite unfit for any scientific 
purpose. This proceeds from the fear of receiving poison 
from the fangs. But there is not the slightest danger of be- 
ing affected, as these can easily be cut out by means of pin- 
cers. The head should be cleaned and the brain removed, in 
the same manner as recommended for birds and quadrupeds, 
the skull anointed and then returned into the skin. 

When the skin is removed, it may be rolled up and packed 
in small space. The simplest way to preserve small species is 
to put them in spirits, which must not be too strong, as it 
will destroy the colors. 

Mr. Burchell, in his four years' journey through Africa, 
glued the skins of the smaller serpents perfectly flat on paper, 
which preserved the size of the animal, and the skin retained 
all the beauty of life. 

Stuffing. The skin, if not recent, must be first softened 
in the manner recommended for birds. A piece of wire is 
taken, the length of the animal, which must be wrapped round 
with tow till it is of a proper thickness, and above the whole 
a spiral band of sliver should be carefully wrapped. It is then 
placed inside of the skin, and sewed up. The eyes are placed 
in, as directed for quadrupeds and birds. When dry, give 
the serpent a coat of varnish, and then twist it into any atti- 
tude wished. A favorite and striking one is to have it wound 
round some animal, and in the act of killing it. 



248 TAXIDERMY. 



FROGS AND TOADS. 

Skinning. The mouth is opened, and the first vertebrae of 
the neck is cut. The whole inside of the mouth is cut out 
with scissors. The two jaws are next raised up and the skin 
is pushed back with the fingers of the right hand, while the 
body is drawn back in a contrary direction with the other 
hand, and the whole body is then drawn out at the mouth. 
The legs are then returned to their proper place. 

Stuffing. The simples'- method of stuffing these animals, 
is with sand. A small funnel is placed into the mouth, and 
pour in well dried sand, When full, a small piece of cotton 
is pushed into the throat, with some of the cement, to keep 
the sand from escaping on moving the animal. 

The frog is then placed on a board, and in an attitude. 
When quite dry, give it a coat of varnish. When this has 
perfectly dried, very small perforations are made under the 
belly with the point of a needle, and the sand allowed to 
escape, leaving the body in its natural form. 

These animals are liable to change of color from drying, and 
should, therefore, be painted with the varnish to their 
natural hues. There is less difficulty with toads in this re- 
spect, as they are usually of a brown color, and not liable to 
much change. 

They may be perfectly preserved in spirits. 



SPIDEKS. 249 



PRESERVING SPIDERS, GALLY-WORMS, AND INSECTS. 







1HE general directions which we shall give respecting 
insects, hold good as to spiders, only we must men- 
tion there is considerable difficulty in preserving the 
bodies of spiders, which generally, in a very short time, shrink 
into a shapeless mass. To prevent this, the body should be 
pricked with the triangular awl and the contents pressed out; 
it should then be stuffed with very fine carded cotton or down, 
which can be pushed in by a pricker, blunted a little at the 
point. When properly distended, the small aperture should 
be filled up with a little cement, or a solution of gum-arabic. 
The legs of the larger species, such as the bird-catching My- 
gale and the Scorpions, are also liable to shrink, and should 
be stuffed in the same manner as that of the body. 

In those species of spiders which we have thus prepared, and 
whose colors are rich and likely to be affected by the action of 
the atmosphere, we must endeavor to arrest its progress by 
immediately imbuing the animal, after it is set up, with the 
solution of corrosive sublimate, and in an hour after with a 
thin coating of a very weak white-spirit varnish; for this pur- 
pose, take a teaspoonful of the ordinary white-spirit or elastic 
varnish, and add to it two teaspoonfuls of spirit of wine; apply 
this wash with a fine camel hair brush, which will quickly dry, 
and have a strong tendency to preserve the color. The var- 
nish, being thus reduced in strength, will not leave any gloss 
on the insect, nor will it be at all perceptible. 

Mr. Samouelle, author of "The Entomologist's Useful 
Compendium," in speaking of preserving spiders, says: " The 
best preserved specimens that I have seen are those where the 
3onteuts of the abdomen have been taken out and filled with 



250 TAXIDERMY. 

fine sand. I have preserved several in this way, and find it 
answer the purpoBe." 

Mr. Donovan makes the following observations on the pres- 
ervation of spiders: 

" To determine whether some species of spiders could be 
preserved with their natural colors, I put several into spirits 
of wine; those with gibbous bodies soon after discharged a 
very considerable quantity of viscid matter, and therewith all 
their beautiful colors; the smallest retained their form, and 
only appeared rather paler in the other colors than when they 
were living. 

" During the course of last summer, among other spiders, 
I met with a rare species; it was of a bright yellow color, 
elegantly marked with black, red, green, and purple; by some 
accident it was unfortunately crushed to pieces in the chip- 
box wherein it was confined, and was, therefore, thrown aside 
as useless; a month or more after that time I observed that 
such parts of the skin as had dried against the inside of the 
box, retained the original brightness of color in a consider- 
able degree. To further the experiment, I made a similar 
attempt, with some caution, on the body of another spider, 
and, though the colors were not perfectly preserved, they ap- 
peared distinct. 

"From further observations I find, that if you kill the 
spider and immediately after extract the entrails, then inflate 
them by means of a blow-pipe, you may preserve them toler- 
ably well; you must clean them on the inside no more than is 
sufficient to prevent mouldiness, lest you injure the colors, 
which certainly, in many kinds, depend on substance that lies 
beneath the skin." 

Scorpions, and all the spider tribe, may be sent home 
in spirits, which will preserve them perfectly, and when taken 
out and dried, they will be found to have suffered nothing 
from their immersion. We have seen some specimens set up, 
after being sent home in spirits, which rivaled any which 



INSECTS. 251 

have been preserved in a recent state. The animals of this class 
are particularly liable to the attacks of insects, particularly 
in warm countries, on which account the mode of transport- 
ing them and keeping them in spirits is, perhaps, superior to 
all others. If, however, they are set up in a warm climate, 
they should be well soaked with the solution of corrosive sub- 
limate, made according to the recipe of Mr. "Waterton. 

For the setting up of this class, see the directions for pre- 
serving insects. 

INSECTS. 

Every country of the world is replete with this extensive 
and interesting class of beings, whose forma are infinitely 
diversified, and whose species are the most numerous of any 
class in the animal kingdom. 

Before any attempt is made to collect insects, certain appa- 
ratus must be provided, not only to enable us to secure them, 
but also to preserve them after they are caught. 

First, then, we must be provided with a quantity of wooden 
boxes, from 18 to 20 inches long, 15 to 17 inches wide, and 
two inches deep. These should have well-filled lids, with 
hinges, and fastened by a wire catch, or small bolt. The 
bottom should have a layer of cork, about the sixth of an 
inch in thickness, which should be fixed down with very strong 
paste, made according to our recipe; and also some wire 
nails, to prevent it from springing. Over the cork should 
be pasted white paper. The box should be anointed inside 
with oil of petroleum. If that cannot be procured, make 
an infusion of strong aromatic plants, such as cinnamon, 
aloes, thyme, laurel, sage, rosemary, or cloves, and wash the 
inside with it. A small packet of camphor should be wrapped 
in a piece of rag, and deposited in a corner of the box. 

We must also be provided with a quantity of insect pins 
of different sizes, corresponding with the size of the insect. 



252 TAXIDERMY. 

The pins used for setting should be longer than those which 
are taken to the field. 

Bottles, with mouths from an inch and a quarter to two 
inches in diameter, must also be procured, and these must be 
three-fourths full of spirits, such as weak brandy, rum, gin, 
or whisky. 

Hunting-Box. We must, besides, have what is termed 
a hunting-box, for carrying in our pocket, when seeking after 
insects. This should be made of strong paste-board or chip, 
for lightness, or, if this is no consideration, of tin. It must 
be of an oblong-oval shape, rounded at the ends, for the con- 
venience of the pocket. It should be from eight to ten inches 
long, four to five inches wide, and two-and-a-half to three 
inches deep. It must have a layer of cork both in the bot- 
tom and top of the lid, inside for attaching insects to, when 
caught during the day. The larger insects are placed at the 
bottom, and the smaller ones on the lid. 

The Entomological. We next procure a net, as in fig- 
ure 26, constructed similar to a bat-fowling net. This is 
either made of fine gauze or coarse muslin ; it may either be 
green or white the latter is the best for observing small in- 
sects which may be caught ; the green, however, is better 
adapted for catching moths. The net- rods should be made 
of hickory, beech, hazel, or holly ; they ought to be five feet 
in length, quite round, smooth, and tapering to an obtuse 
point, as at figure 24 ; the oblique cross-piece at the point 
should be of cane, and fitted into the angular ferrule ; the 
rod must be divided into three or four pieces, so that it may 
be taken asunder and carried in the pocket ; the upper part 
of each joint must have a ferrule affixed to it, for the pur- 
pose of articulating the other pieces. Each joint should 
have a notch or check to prevent the rod from twisting. 

The net itself, figure 31, must have a welting all around it, 



INSECTS. 258 

doubled so as to form a groove for the reception of the 
rods. la the center of the upper part or point it must have 
a small piece of chamois leather, so as to form a kind of 
hinge; this must be bound round the welting and divided 
in the middle, so as to prevent the cross pieces from slipping 
over each other; it shows about four inches of the gauze 
turned up, so as to form a bag; there are strings for the 
purpose of passing through the staple, to which the net is 
firmly drawn on each side. When the net is used a handle 
is to be held in each hand. 

If it is intended to take insects on the wing, by means 
of this net, for which it is admirably adapted, it may be 
folded together in an instant. If the gauze is fine enough, 
and preserved whole, even the smallest insect cannot escape. 
It may be also applied in catching coleopterous insects, 
which are never on the wing, as well as caterpillars. When 
used for this purpose the entomologist must hold it ex- 
panded under trees, while another must beat the branches 
with a stick. Great numbers of both insects and Iarva3 will 
fall in the gauze, and by this means many hundreds may 
be captured in a day. 

Another method is to spread a large table-cloth under trees 
and bushes, and then beat them with a stick. An umbrella 
reversed has frequently been used for the same purpose. 
Bose, the celebrated naturalist, used this last method he 
held the umbrella in the left hand, while he beat the bushes 
with the other. 

The Hoop or Aquatic Net, Figure 26. This net is 
used for capturing aquatic insects, which are either lurking 
at the bottom, swimming through the liquid element, or ad- 
hering to plants. It may also be successfully used in sweep- 
ing amongst grass and low herbage for coleopterous insects 
and others which are generally to be found in such situations. 
The socket, for the handle, may be made of such dimensions 



254 TAXIDERMY. 

as will answer the second joint of the entomological net-rod, 
which will save carrying another handle ; or a walking-stick 
may be made to fit it. 

A Phial, Figure 33. This may either be made of tin or 
crystal, and used for collecting coleopterous and other creep- 
ing insects. The mouth should be nearly an inch wide, and 
a cork exactly fitted to it, in the center of which must be in- 
serted a small quill, to afford air, and inserted about an inch 
beyond the cork, to prevent the insects from escaping. If the 
bottle is made of tin, and of a larger size, a tin tube must be 
introduced into its side, and terminating externally at the 
surface. 

A Digger, Figure 28. The instrument is either made of 
iron or steel, and is about six or seven inches in length, fixed 
into a turned wooden handle. It is used for collecting the 
pupa? of lepidopterous insects, at the roots and in the clefts 
of the bark of trees ; and also for pulling off the bark, partic- 
ularly from decayed trees, under which many curious and 
rare insects are frequently found. It is most useful with an 
arrow-headed point. 

Setting Needles, Figure 29. Fitted into a small wooden 
handle, the needle itself should be about three inches long, 
and about the thickness of a small darning-needle, slightly 
bent from about the middle. Figure 30 is a straight needle 
which is used for extending the parts of insects ; at one end of 
the handle is the needle, and at the other a camel-hair pencil, 
which is used for removing any dirt or dust which may be 
on the insects. The pencil may be occasionally drawn 
through the lips, brought to a fine point, and used for dispos- 
ing the antennas and palpi of insects of the minute kinds. 

Brass Pliers, Figure 25. These are used for picking up 
small insects from the roots of grass, etc. They may also be 



INSECTS, 256 

used for laying hold of small insects, while they are yet free 
and not set up. 

Fan Forceps. This very useful instrument to the ento* 
mologist, must be made of steel or iron, and about eight or 
ten inches in length ; its general construction is like that of a 
pair of scissors, and it is held and used in the same manner, 
Towards the points are formed a pair of fans, which may 
either be square, oval, hexagonal, or octagonal in the edges, 
and the centeri covered with fine gauze. The general size of 
the fans is from four to six inches. These are used for capt- 
uring bees, wasps, and muscae. They are also used for catch- 
ing butterflies, motha, and sphinges. If an insect is on a leaf, 
both leaf and insect may be inclosed within the fans ; or if 
they are on a wall or the trunk of a tree, they may be very 
easily secured by them. 

If a butterfly, sphinx, or moth, are captured by the forceps, 
while yet between the fans, they should be pressed pretty 
smoothly with the thumb-nail, on the thorax or body, taking 
care, however, not to crush it. It may then be taken into the 
hand, and a pin passed through the thorax, and then stuck 
into the bottom of your hunting-box. 

Quills. These are of great use in carrying minute insects. 
They should be neatly stopped with cork and cement at one 
end, the other end should be provided with a small movable 
cork for a stopper. Each end should be wrapped carefully 
round with a silk thread waxed, to prevent them from split- 
ting. 

Pocket Larvae-Box. For collecting caterpillars, this box 
is very essential : it consists merely of a chip-box, with a hole 
pierced in the center of the top and bottom, and covered with 
gauze, for the admission of air. It will be necessary to put 
into the box some of the leaves on which the larvae feed, as 
they are very voracious, and cannot long exist without food. 



256 TAXIDI-:RMY. 

Pill-Boxes. No entomologist should be without five or 
six dozen of these useful articles. They are of great value in 
collecting the smaller species of lepidopterous insects, such as 
the tinea, etc., and only one specimen should be put in each 
box, as, if more than one, they are apt to injure each other's 
wings by beating against each other. 

Setting Boards. These must be made of deal board, 
from a foot to fifteen inches long, and eight or ten inches 
broad, with a piece of wood run across the ends, to prevent 
them from warping. They are covered with cork, which 
must be perfectly smooth on the surface, with white paper 
pasted over it. Several boards will be required, by persons 
who are making collections, as some of the insects take a con- 
siderable time to dry, so that they may be fit for introducing 
into a cabinet. 

The boards should be kept in a frame made for the purpose. 
It should consist of a top, bottom, and two sides; the back 
and front should have the frames of doors attached by small 
hinges, and their centers covered with fine gauze, for the free 
passage of air; the sides should have small pieces of wood pro- 
jecting from them, for the boards to rest on; which should be 
at such a distance from each other that the pins may not be 
displaced in pushing the boards in or drawing them out. The 
frame should be placed in a dry, airy situation. 

Braces. These are merely small pieces of card, cut in 
the form exhibited, Fig. 36, attached to the butterfly and other 
insects; and also at Fig. 39. They are pinned down on the 
insects, to keep their wings, etc., in a proper state, till they 
acquire a set. 



SETTING AND PRESERVING INSECTS, 257 

SETTING AND PRESERVING INSECTS. 

Of the orders Coleoptera, Orthoptera, and Hemiptera. 
These are easily preserved. 

They are killed by immersing in scalding water, and then 
laid upon blossom or blotting paper, for the purpose of 
absorbing as much of the moisture as possible; or they may 
be placed in a tin box, with a little camphor in it, near the 
fire, which soon kills them. This is, besides, of considerable 
effect in their preservation. 

Insects of the genera Gryllus (Cricket), Locusta (Locusts), 
etc., have tender bodies, and are sure to shrivel in drying. 
The intestines should therefore be extracted, while they are 
yet moist, and skin filled with cotton, as directed with some 
of the spiders. 

When Coleopterous insects are set with the wings displayed, 
the elytra should be separated, and the pin passed through 
their body near the middle of the thorax, as in Fig. 35. The 
wings are exhibited as in the act of flying, and are retained 
in this situation until they are quite dry, by the cord braces. 
The insects of this order should always have the pin passed 
through the right elytra on the right side, as shown at Fig. 
37, that is, it should pass underneath, between the first pair 
of feet and the intermediate ones. 

The legs, palpi and antennas should be displayed in a natural 
order on the setting board, and retained in the position 
by means of pins and braces, as shown in Figs. 35, 37. These 
must be kept in that state, either longer or shorter, accord- 
ing to the insect and the state of the weather, as, if placed in 
a cabinet before they are quite dry, they are sure to get 
mouldy, and will ultimately rot. 

Minute insects should be attached to cards with gum, as 
shown, Figs. 34 and 39, with the legs and other organs dis- 
played. Entomologists generally adapt triangular cards as at 
Fig. 38, as less liable to hide the parts of the insects. 



258 TAXIDERMY. 

Order Lepidoptera. Mr. Haworth, in mentioning the 
tenacity of life in the Goat Moth, states that " the usual way 
of compressing the thorax is not sufficient to kill this insect. 
They will live several days after the most severe pressure has 
been given there, to the great uneasiness of any humane ento- 
mologists. The methods of suffocation by tobacco or sulphur 
are equally inefficacious, unless continued for a greater num- 
ber of hours, than is proper for the preservation of the speci- 
mens. Another method now in practice is better, and 
however fraught with cruelty it may appear to the inexperi- 
enced collector, is the greatest piece of comparative mercy that 
can, in this case, be administered. When the larger Moths 
must be killed, destroy them at once by the insertion of a 
strong, red-hot needle into their thickest part, beginning at the 
froat of the thorax. If this be properly done, instead of 
lingering through several days, they are dead in a moment. It 
appears to me, however, that insects being animals of cold and 
sluggish juices, are not so susceptible of the sensations we call 
pain, as those which enjoy a warmer temperature of body, 
and a swifter circulation of the fluids. To the philosophic 
mind it is self-evident that they have not such acute organs 
of feeling pain as other animals of a similar size, whose juices 
are endowed with a quicker motion, and possess a constant, 
regular and genial warmth. 

Butterflies are soon killed by passing a pin through the 
thorax. The pin passed through the thorax of small moths 
generally proves almost instantly fatal to them. 

The best manner of preserving the minute species of moths 
is by pill-boxes, as above stated, each moth being kept in a 
separate box. We have found the following the best mode 
of destroying them : 

A piece of flat hard-wood is taken, and a circular groove 
cut in it, sufficiently deep to admit the mouth of a tumbler 
being placed within it. In the center of the wood, piorcc a 
hole about a third of an inch in diameter in its center: placo 



SETTING AND PRESERVING INSECTS. 259 

the pill box under this tumbler, with the lid off, and the 
insect will soon creep out; but whether it does so or not, a 
match well primed with sulphur is lighted and placed into 
the hole under the center of the tumbler, which will suffocate 
the insect in a few seconds. I have also found this an effect- 
ual method of killing the larger species of butterflies, and 
moths. In piercing them, the pin should be quite perpen- 
dicular, that no part of their minute frame should be hidden 
by its oblique position. 

The larger insects of this order are set by braces chiefly. 
A single one should in the first place be introduced under the 
wing, near the thorax, as shown in Fig. 36, and a longer brace 
extending over the wings. These should not bear upon the 
wings, but be ready to rest gently on them, when required. 
The wings are now elevated to their proper position by the 
setting needle, and other braces are used as necessity dictates. 
The feet and antennae are extended and kept in their places 
by means of pins, in which operation small braces are also 
occasionally used. 

The French entomologists set butterflies, moths, and 
sphinges, on a piece of soft wood, in which they have exca- 
vated a groove for the reception of the body, as deep as the in- 
sertion of the wings. They are otherwise preserved as above 
directed. 

In the larger butterflies, moths, and sphinges, the abdomen 
should be perforated, its contents extracted, and then stuffed 
with fine cotton, after having been washed internally with the 
solution of corrosive sublimate. Indeed, the cotton should 
also be rubbed with arsenical soap before being introduced, 
as these insects are particularly liable to the attack of smaller 
insects, such as the mite. 

Several of the moth tribe are extremely liable to change 
their color some time after they have been placed in a cabinet. 
This change is frequently occasioned by an oily matter which 
is common to many of them, This first makes its appearance 



2GC TAXIDERMY. 

in small spots on the body, but soon spreads itself over the 
abdomen, thorax, and wings; and ends in a total obliteration 
of all the beautiful markings. A method which has been 
sometimes successfully adopted is to sprinkle all the wings 
with powdered chalk, and holding a heated iron over it; the 
chalk absorbs the grease, and may then be blown off by means 
of a pair of small bellows. Another way of applying the 
chalk, and perhaps the better of the two, is to throw some 
powdered chalk on the face of a heated iron, and then put it 
into a piece of linen cloth, and apply it to the body of the 
insect; the heat of the iron will soften the grease, and the 
chalk will absorb it. 

Another method is to hold a heated iron over the insects 
for a few minutes, and then to wash the spotted or greasy 
places with ox-gall and water, applied with a camel-hair pen- 
cil, and afterwards wash it with pure water, and dry it by an 
application of blotting paper, and when perfectly dry imbue 
it with the solution of corrosive sublimate. But grease sel- 
dom appears where the contents of the abdomen have been 
removed. 

Orders Neuroptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera. The 

Dragon Flies (Libellulce*) are frequently very difficult to kill, be- 
ing powerful and nervous animals. "When caught they should 
be transfixed through the sides, and it sometimes becomes neces- 
sary to put braces on their wings to prevent them from flutter- 
ing while in the hunting, box. They may also be killed some- 
times by placing them under a tumbler and suffocating them. 
Some entomologists put them in scalding water for an instant. 
The contents of the abdomen should always be removed 
from Dragon Flies, otherwise it will become black and shin- 
ing through the skin, and destroy the beautiful bands with 
which they are ornamented. They can be stuffed with cotton 
or a small roll of paper introduced. If these precautions are 



RELAXING DRIED INSECTS. 261 

attended to, the insect will preserve the perfect beauty of its 
living state. 

The other species of these orders soon die after being trans- 
fixed. They may be set by braces and pins, as represented in 
Figs. 35 and 37. 

Some of the Dipterous insects are very perishable in point 
of color after death, particularly in the abdomen, the skin of 
which is very thin. The only way of remedying this is to 
pierce the abdomen, and after taking out the contents the 
cavity should be filled with a powdered paint the same color 
as the living subjects, which will shine through and give it all 
the appearance of nature. 



METHOD OF RELAXING DRIED 
INSECTS. 

Insects frequently get stiffened before the entomologist has 
leisure to get them set; and it usually happens that those sent 
home from foreign countries have been ill set, and require to 
be placed in more appropriate attitudes after they have fallen 
into the hands of the scientific collector. They may be re- 
laxed and made as flexible as recently killed specimens by the 
following simple process, from which they can receive no 
injury: Pin them on a piece of cork, and place the cork in a 
large basin or pan of tepid water, and cover the top tight with 
a damp cloth, taking care that it is sufficiently high not to 
injure the insects. In most cases a few hours is sufficient to 
restore them to their original flexibility, so that they may be 
easily put in their proper positions. In some instances, three 
or four days are necessary to relax them thoroughly, so as to 
set the wings without the risk of breaking them; no force 
whatever must be used with any of the members. When set 
up, after being relaxed, they must be treated in exactly the 
same manner as recent specimens. 



262 TAXIDERMY. 

We must again caution the entomologist to be careful that 
he applies the solution of corrosive sublimate to all his spcies, 
otherwise there is little chance of their continuing long with- 
out being attacked by the mite; they ought to be frequently 
imbued. 

Mr. Waterton, who has studied deeply the subject of pre- 
serving animal substances, and applied them not only in our 
own country, but also under the influence of a tropical climate, 
makes the following observations on the preservation of In- 
sects: "I only know of two methods," says he, "to guard 
preserved insects from the depredations of living ones. The 
first is, by poisoning the atmosphere the second is, by poison- 
ing the prepared specimens themselves, so effectually that they 
are no longer food for the depredators. But there are some 
objections to both these modes; a poisoned atmosphere will 
evaporate in time if not attended to, or if neglected to be re- 
newed; and there is great difficulty in poisoning some speci- 
mens on account of their delicacy and minuteness. If you 
keep spirits of turpentine in the boxes which contain your 
preserved specimens, I am of opinion that those upecimens will 
be safe as long as the odor of the turpentine remains in the 
box, for it is said to be the most pernicious of all scents to 
insects. But it requires attention to keep up an atmosphere of 
spirits of turpentine; if it be allowed to evaporate entirely, 
then there is a clear and undisputed path open to the inroads 
of the enemy; he will take advantage of your absence or 
neglect, and when you return to view your treasure you will 
find it in ruins. Spirits of turpentine poured into a common 
glass inkstand, in which there is a piece of sponge, and placed 
in a corner of your box, will create a poisoned atmosphere and 
kill every insect there. The poisoning of your specimens by 
means of corrosive sublimate in alcohol, is a most effective 
method. As soon as the operation is properly performed, the 
depredating insect perceives that the prepared specimen is no 
longer food for it, and will forever cease to attack it; but then 



RELAXING DRIED INSECTS. 263 

every part must have received the poison, otherwise those 
parts where the poison has not reached will still be exposed to 
the enemy, and he will pass unhurt over the poisoned parts 
till he arrives at that part of your specimen which is still 
wholesome food for him. Now, the difficulty lies in applying 
the solution to very minute specimens without injuring their 
appearance; and all that can be said is, to recommend un- 
wearied exertion, which is sure to be attended with great skill, 
and great skill will insure surprising success." 

I am convinced that there is no absolute and lasting safety 
for prepared specimens in zoology from the depredations of 
insects, except by poisoning every part of them with a solution 
of corrosive sublimate in alcohol. 

Mr. Waterton is of opinion that tight boxes with aromatic 
atmospheres are not to be depended upon in the preservation 
of insects. He says: " The tight boxes and aromatic atmos- 
pheres will certainly do a great deal, but they are liable to 
fail, for this obvious reason, viz. : That they do not render for- 
ever absolutely baneful and abhorrent to the depredator that 
which in itself is nutritious and grateful to him. In an evil 
hour, through neglect in keeping up a poisoned atmosphere, 
the specimens collected by industry and prepared by art, and 
which ought to live, as it were, for the admiration of future 
ages, may fall a prey to an intruding and almost invisible 
enemy, so that, unless the solution of corrosive sublimate in 
alcohol is applied, you are never perfectly safe from surprise. 
I have tried a decoction of aloes, wormwood and walnut leaves, 
thinking they would be of service on account of their bitter- 
ness. The trial completely failed." 

Many entomologists are satisfied with possessing the insect 
in its perfect or image condition. But it is exceedingly in- 
teresting to be able to trace these through their different 
states of existence from the egg to the perfect insect. Besides, 
we are certain to produce the insects in the highest state of 
preservation when we breed them ourselves, and it is besides 



264 TAXIDERMY. 

very interesting to have the eggs of the different species as 
well as the caterpillar and pupa. 

The Eggs of Insects. The eggs of insects preserve their 
form and color in a cabinet, in general, without much trouble. 
Swammerdam had a method of preserving them when they 
appeared to be giving way. He made a perforation within 
them with a fine needle, pressed out their contents, after- 
wards inflated them with a glass blow-pipe, and filled them 
with a mixture of resin and oil of spike. 

The Larvae, or Caterpillars. The easiest way of de- 
stroying the Caterpillar is by immersion in spirits of wine. 
They may be retained for a long time in this spirit without 
destroying their color. 

Mr. William Weatherhead had an ingenious mode of pre- 
serving larvse. He killed the caterpillar, as above directed, 
and having made a small puncture in the tail, gently pressed 
out the contents of the abdomen, and then filled the skin with 
fine dry sand, and brought the animal to its natural circum- 
ference. It is then exposed to the air to dry, and it will have 
become quite hard in the course of a few hours, after which 
the sand may be shaken out at the small aperture and the 
caterpillar then gummed to a piece of card. 

Another method is, after the entrails are squeezed out, to 
insert into the aperture a glass tube which has been drawn 
to a very fine point. The operator must blow through this 
pipe while he keeps turning the skin slowly round over a 
charcoal fire ; the skin soon becomes hardened, and, after 
being anointed with oil of spike and resin, it may be placed 
in a cabinet when dry. A small straw or pipe of grass may 
be substituted for the glass pipe. Some persons inject them 
with colored wax after they are dry. 

The Pupa. When the insects have escaped from their 
pupa skin, the skin usually retains the shape and general ap- 



BREEDING INSECTS. 265 

pearance it did while it contained the insect. It is therefore 
ready for the cabinet, without any preparation whatever. 
But if the animal has not quitted its envelope, it will be 
necessary either to drop the pupa into warm water, or to heat 
it in a tin case before the fire ; the former mode, however, is 
the best, and least liable to change the colors of the pupa. 



METHOD OF BREEDING INSECTS. 

Breeding Cages. These must be made of oak, or other 
hard wood, as pine is apt to kill the caterpillars from its 
strong smell of turpentine. The best form for these is repre- 
sented in Fig. 32. The sides and front are covered with 
gauze ; a is a small square box, for the reception of a phial 
of water, for placing the stalks of plants in, on which it is 
intended the caterpillars are to feed. The most convenient size 
for a breeding cage is eight inches in breadth, four deep, and 
one foot in height. It is not proper to place within a cage 
more than one species of caterpillar, as many of them prey 
upon each other. Indeed, animals of the same species will 
devour each other if left without food. The caterpillars of 
insects, for the most part, will only eat one particular kind 
of food, so that it is better to have no more than one sort in 
a cage. 

There must be at the bottom of the cage earth to the depth 
of two inches; this should be mixed with some fine sand and 
vegetable earth, if possible, to prevent it from drying. The 
cages should be kept in a cool cellar or damp place, because 
many insects change into the pupa condition under the earth; 
so that it would require to be somewhat moist, to prevent the 
destruction of the animal. The shell or case of the pupa also 
becomes hard, if the earth is not kept moist; and, in that 
event, the animal will not have sufficient strength to break 
its case at the time it ought to emerge from its confinement, 



266 TAXIDERMY. 

and must consequently die, which but too frequently happens 
from mismanagement. 

Some seasons are more favorable than others for the pro- 
duction of caterpillars, and to keep each kind by themselves 
would require an immense number of cages, as well as occupy 
much time in changing the food, and paying due attention to 
them. To obviate this, some persons have large breeding 
cages, with a variety of food in them, which must be cleaned 
out every two days, and fresh leaves given to the caterpillars; 
as, on due attention to feeding, the beauty and vigor of the 
coming insects will much depend. 

The larvae of insects, which feed beneath the surface of the 
earth, may be bred in the following manner: Let any box 
that is about three or four feet square, and two or three feet 
deep, be lined internally with tin, and a number of very min- 
ute holes be bored through the sides and bottom. Put into 
this box a quantity of earth, replete with such vegetables as 
the caterpillars subsist on, and sink it into a bed of earth, so 
that the surface may be exposed to the different changes of 
the weather. The lid should be covered with brass or iron net- 
work, to prevent their escape, and for the free admission of air. 

The young entomologist should obtain a cabinet of about 
thirty drawers, arranged in two tiers, and covered in with 
folding doors. There is a great convenience in this size, as 
the cabinet is rendered more portable, and at the same time 
admits of having another of the same size, being placed above 
the top of it, as the collection increases, without injuring the 
uniformity, and thus the drawers may be augmented to any 
extent. It is immaterial whether the cabinet is made of ma- 
hogany or oak; sometimes they are constructed of cedar, but 
seldom of pine, or any other soft wood. Small cells must be 
made in the inside of the fronts for camphor. 

Corking of Drawers. The simplest way to get the cork 
is to purchase it of a cork-cutter, ready prepared, but it will 



BREEDING INSECTS. 267 

be much cheaper for the entomologist to prepare it himself. 
In this case, it should be cut into strips of about three inches 
wide, with a cork-cutter's knife, to smooth the surface and to 
divide it. The strips should be fixed in a rice, and cut to the 
thickness required with a fine saw; but grease must not be 
used in the operation, as it will not only prevent the cork 
from adhering to the bottom of the drawer, but will also 
grease the paper which should be pasted on its surface. The 
black surface of the cork should be rasped down to a smooth 
surface. After having reduced the slips to about three quar- 
ters of an inch in thickness, the darkest, or worst side of the 
slip should be glued down to a sheet of brown, or cartridge 
paper; this should be laid on a deal board, about three feet in 
length, and the width required for a drawer or box; a few fine 
nails, or brads, must be driven through each piece of cork to 
keep it firm and in its place until the glue is dried; by this 
means, sheets of cork may be formed the size of the drawer. 
All the irregularities are filed or rasped down quite to a level 
surface, and then polished smooth with pumice-stone. The 
sheet, thus formed and finished, is glued into the drawers. 
To prevent its warping, some weights must be equally distrib- 
uted over the cork, that it may adhere firmly to the bottom 
of the drawer. "When quite dry, the weights are removed, 
and the cork covered with fine white paper, but not very 
thick. The paper is allowed to be quite damp with the paste 
before it is placed on the cork, and when dry it will become 
perfectly tight. 

Insect cabinets should be kept in a very dry situation, other- 
wise the antennas, legs, etc., will become quite mouldy. The 
same evil will ensue if the insect is not perfectly dry before it 
is placed in the cabinet. - Should an insect be covered with 
mold it can be washed off with a camel's hair pencil, dipped 
in camphorated spirits of wine; in which case, the insect 
must be dried in a warm airy situation, before being placed 
in the cabinet. 



268 TAXIDERMY. 

There should always be plenty of camphor kept in the 
drawers, otherwise there is great danger to be apprehended 
from mites; where these exist, they are easily discorered by 
the dust which is under the insects by which they are infested. 
In which case, they must be immediately taken out, and 
rubbed clean with a fine camel's hair pencil, and well imbued 
with the solution of corrosive sublimate, and then placed near 
a fire, taking care, however, that too great a heat is not ap- 
plied, as it will utterly destroy the specimen. The butterfly, 
sphinx and moth tribes are extremely liable to the attack of 
mites, and should, therefore, be frequently examined. 



SHELL FISH, TO PRESERVE AND THE 
ART OF POLISHING SHELLS. 




FISH, and all other molluscous animals, can 
only be preserved in spirits. The same observation 
applies to the animals which inhabit that numerous 
tribe called Testaceous Shells. They must be detached from 
the shells, and put into spirits, while the shells themselves 
must be preserved, independent of the animal. 

Shells naturally arrange themselves under three aistiuct 
heads : Marine, Land, and Fluviatile, or Fresh Water. 

Marine shells are only to be expected perfect, when pro- 
cured in a living state. The way to extract the animal is to 
pour some warm water on it ; but, if too hot, it is liable to 
crack the shells. When the animals are dead, they can easily 
be pulled out with any hooked instrument, or fork, or if the 
animal is small, by a common pin. This applies to all marine 
shells; whether univalve, bivalve or tubular. It is of great 
consequence to preserve the ligament of bivalve shells entire, 
BO that the valves may not be separated. The animals of 



SHELL FISH, ETC. 269 

laud and fresh water shells are killed by the same means, 
only that the water requires to be very hot. 

Unless the shells are covered with extraneous matter, it 
is not necessary to clean them. Marine shells are, however, 
very liable to be incrusted with other marine bodies, partic- 
ularly with serpula and balani, etc. These must be started 
off by means of a sharp instrument; an engraving tool is 
well adapted for this purpose. This must be done with great 
caution, in species which have spines, and other excrescences, 
as they are very liable to be broken. Should any of the cal- 
careous matter still adhere, this must be removed, by apply- 
ing to it a very weak mixture of muriatic acid and water, ap- 
plied with the point of a quill, and then plunged into water, 
and allowed to remain till the acid is quite extracted. But 
on no account whatever attempt to eradicate these parasitic 
bodies by means of acid, or acid and water alone, as the 
chances are that the shell will be completely destroyed by 
their application. We have seen many fine and valuable 
shells destroyed by an injudicious application of acids they 
should never be used when it can possibly be avoided. We 
have, on the other hand, seen shells which were so completely 
enveloped in calcareous crust, that it was impossible to trace 
their external surface, most thoroughly cleared of all this, 
without being touched at all by acids, the whole being re- 
moved by a small knife or other sharp instrument; and these, 
in many cases, having long and tender spines externally. 

Nothing can be more monstrous than the application of 
pumice-stone, which some recommend, for polishing shells ; as 
is also the use of tripoli, rotten-stone, and emery. Neither do 
we approve the application of varnishes, as such shells never 
have their natural luster. 

If a shell is found dead upon the beach it is probable that 
it will have undergone a certain degree of decomposition, that 
is, it will have parted with part of its animal matter, and con- 
sequently the colors will have faded and the surface present 



270 TAXIDERMY. 

a chalky appearance. To remove this take a small proportion 
of Florence oil and apply it to the surface, when the colors 
which were invisible will appear. Wh^n completely saturated 
with oil let the shell be rubbed dry and placed in a cabinet. 
Oil may also be applied after acid has been used, and it will 
be found extremely useful when applied to dry the epidermis, 
which it will prevent from cracking or quitting the shell en- 
tirely, which it frequently does. 

Whether marine shells are procured in a living or dead 
state, a very necessary precaution is to immerse them in pure 
tepid water after the animal has been extracted, and allow 
them to continue in it for an hour or two so as completely to 
extract any salt or acid which may be in them. 

Fresh water shells are liable to a calcareous or earthy in- 
crustation, which must be removed by immersing them in 
warm water, and afterwards scraping and brushing them with 
ft nail or toothbrush. Much nicety is necessary in cleaning 
these, as their great thinness renders them, in general, liable 
to be broken. A little Florence oil will improve the appear- 
ance of the epidermis and render it less liable to crack. 

Land shells seldom require any cleaning except washing 
in water, as they are not liable to incrustations of any kind. 

When shells are perforated by marine animals, or otherwise 
broken, if the specimen is rare, it is desirable to remedy these 
defects as far as possible ; they may therefore be filled up, or 
pieces added to them with the cement, which may be colored 
when dry to its original state. 

Of Polishing Shells. Many species of marine and fresh 
water shells are composed of mother-of-pearl, generally cov- 
ered with a strong epidermis. When it is wished to exhibit 
the external structure of shells, the epidermis is removed and 
the outer testaceous coatings polished down till the pearl- 
aceous structure becomes visible. It has been a common 
practice to remove the strong epidermis of shells by means of 



SHELL FISH, ETC. 271 

strong acids, but this is a hazardous and tedious mode of 
operating. The best method is to put the shells into a pan of 
cold water with a quantity of quicklime and boil it for two to 
four hours, according to the thickness of the epidermis. The 
shells afterwards must be gradually cooled, and some strong 
acid applied to the epidermis, when it will easily peel off. 
Two hours are sufficient for the common muscle being boiled. 
The shells are afterwards polished with rotten-stone and oil, 
put on a piece of chamois leather. 

The epidermis of the uno margaritifera is so thick that it 
requires from four to five hours boiling. After the epidermis 
has been removed, there is beneath it a thick layer of dull, 
calcareous matter, which must be started off with a knife or 
other sharp instrument ; this requires great labor, but, when 
accomplished, a fine mother-of-pearl is exhibited which adds 
an agreeable variety as a specimen. 

Various turbos and trochuses are also deprived of their 
epidermis and polished with files, sand-paper, pumice-stone, 
etc., till the pearly appearance is obtained ; but all these modes 
are invented for disfiguring rather than improving the shells 
in the eye of the naturalist, and should never be resorted to 
except where the species is very common, in which case it is 
well enough to do so with one or two specimens to show the 
structure of the shells. 

After the operation of polishing and washing with acids, a 
little Florence oil should be rubbed over to bring out the 
color a and destroy the influence of the acid. 



272 TAXIDERMY. 



THE CHASE AND MANNER OP COLLECTING ANIMALS. 




QUADRUPEDS AND BIRDS. 

\ 

i'yiy^jg^ r -^ 

jf i^T is hardly necessary to recommend a double-barrelled 
gun. One of the barrels should be loaded with small 
shot or dross of lead for small birds and the other 
with large shot. These should have much less powder than 
an ordinary charge, so as not to tear and injure the animals. 
Paper, cotton or flax and powdered dry earthen ashes should 
form part of the naturalist's stores. 

When a bird is killed, a small quantity of dry dust is to be 
put on the wound. For this purpose the feathers must be 
raised with a pin, or a gun-picker, close to the wound. The 
bill of the bird should have a small quantity of cotton or 
flax introduced into it to prevent the blood from flowing and 
spoiling the plumage. The feathers must be all adjusted, 
and the bird then placed on the ground to allow the blood to 
coagulate. Every specimen should be placed in a piece of 
paper of the form of a hollow cone, like the thumb bags used 
by grocers. The head should be introduced into this, the 
paper should then be closed around the bird, and packed in a 
box filled with moss, dried grass or leaves. 

Birds taken alive in nets and traps are to be preferred to 
others for stuffing, and also those caught by birdlime, which 
must be removed by spirits of wine. 

Birds should always be skinned the same day they are 
killed, or next day at farthest, particularly in summer; as there 
is a danger of putrefaction ensuing, by which the feathers 
will fall off. However, in winter there is no danger for some 
days; but in tropical climates they must be prepared soon 



QUADRUPEDS AND BIRDS. 273 

after they are killed. The same observations apply generally 
to quadrupeds. 

Bats and owls are caught during the day, in the hollows of 
aged trees, in the crevices of walls, and ruins of buildings. 
These are animals which, it may be presumed, are still little 
known in consequence of their nocturnal habits. 

Those who prepare for the chase, with the intention of 
preserving animals, should take care to provide themselves 
with implements necessary for fulfilling the objects advan- 
tageously. The articles most needed are one or two pairs of 
large pincers, scissors, forceps, scalpels, knives, needles, 
thread and a small hatchet, as well as one or more canisters 
of preserving powder, some pots of arsenical soap, or arsenical 
composition, and some bottles of spirits of turpentine. Cot- 
ton may be employed in stuffing the skins, and therefore a 
considerable quantity should always be taken along with the 
naturalist. In parts of Asia and Africa, where this cannot 
be procured, tow must be employed, or old ropes teazed down; 
and where even this cannot be found, dried grass and moss 
may be used. M. Le Vaillant used a species of dog-grass 
while in Africa, which is very abundant in that country; and 
it answered the purpose remarkably well. 

It being supposed that a traveler has an ample caravan, pro- 
vided with all the necessaries which we have pointed out, and 
having killed a quadruped, he will skin it immediately, 
according to the method which we have pointed out. He will 
then sew up the skin after receiving a partial stuffing, and 
having been anointed with the arsenical soap or composition. 
All the extremities must then be imbued with spirits of tur- 
pentine, and the skin should be placed in some convenient 
place to dry, so that it may have the advantage of complete 
exposure to the air. The turpentine must be again applied at 
the end of three or four days, more especially around the 
mouth of the quadruped. 

It will be of the utmost advantage to remain a week or ten 



274 TAXIDERMY. 

days at one place; by which means the naturalist will have had 
time to render himself somewhat acquainted with the animala 
which localize in that neighborhood. And as some species 
frequently confine themselves to a very limited spot, by leav- 
ing the place too hurriedly he is apt to overlook them. 

After the traveler has determined on leaving his canton- 
ment, he must see that all the objects he has collected are in 
a condition to be removed. He must examine carefully each 
specimen, and see that they have not been attacked by the 
destructive insects, so abundant in warm climates. Should 
flies have deposited their eggs in the lips of the quadrupeds 
or birds, these must be destroyed by spirits of turpentine. 
When a set of animals or birds are thoroughly dry, they should 
be packed in a box or case, which has been well joined. 

A journal ought to be kept detailing all the circumstances 
connected with the animals, the places in which they were 
killed, and the color of their eyes, together with any infor- 
mation that can be procured of their habits from the 
natives. People are too apt to forget particulars when 
engaged in such varied pursuits, and the sooner they are 
committed to paper the better. 

When the traveler arrives in Africa, he will meet with 
animals of the largest size, such as the elephant, the rhino- 
ceros, hippopotamus, giraffe, quagga, urus, bubulus, con- 
doma, as well as large antelope and deer. He will unques- 
tionably find some difficulty in his endeavors to bring with 
him the skins of these animals, as in that country it is even 
troublesome, in many cases, to transport the necessaries of 
life. But the ardor of the zealous naturalist will here be 
increased by beholding such splendid specimens as he can 
never meet with elsewhere. All his energies will be strength- 
ened and every sacrifice made to enable him to transport the 
fruits of his toils. 

We need only to recur to the zeal manifested by Le Vaill- 
ant in his travels, and the rapturous delight experienced by 



QUADRUPEDS AND BIRDS. 275 

him when he first beheld and killed the giraffe. He brought 
this large skin from Caffraria, where he killed the animal, a 
distance of two-hundred leagues from the Cape of Good Hope. 

Should the traveler, accidentally, or in pursuit of natural 
objects, find himself possessed of the carcase of one of these 
large and fine animals, he would deeply regret not being able 
to fetch away the skin from want of a knowledge how to 
separate it from the body. "We shall, therefore, suppose that 
he has killed an animal the size of a bull. He must first 
make an incision under the belly, in the form of a double 
cross. The central line must reach from the chin to 
the anus; the two other transverse cuts must reach from one 
foot to the other. These are always made inside, so that the 
seams may be less conspicuous when the animal is mounted. 
When the skin is stuffed, the hoofs are detached by laying 
them on a stone, and striking them with a hatchet or mallet. 
The nails or hoofs must be left attached to the skin. After 
this, the skin is removed from the feet, legs, and thighs, and 
treated in other respects as pointed out in skinning other 
large animals. The bones of the head must be preserved if 
possible, leaving it attached at the muzzle only. All the 
muscles must be removed from the head, and the bones ren- 
dered as clean as possible. 

As it is probable that an animal of this magnitude has been 
killed at a great distance from any habitation, there will not 
be an opportunity of macerating the hide in alum and water. 
The skin will also be too thick for the arsenical soap to pene- 
trate with effect. Under these circumstances, the next best 
thing to preserve it is to take the ashes of a wood fire, and 
rub it well inside. The skin should then be stretched along 
^ke boughs of a tree, and allowed to dry. The skull, after it 
nas been dried, must be returned into the skin, and the lips, ears, 
and feet imbued plentifully with turpentine, which operation 
must be several times repeated at intervals. Nothing is more 



276 TAXIDERMY. 

effectual in preventing the attacks .of insects than this spirit, 
and no larvae will exist in places which it has touched. 

The skin will be sufficiently dried within two or three days, 
so that the hair may be turned inwards. If some common 
salt can be procured, a solution of it should be made, and the 
hair rubbed with it. Both sides of the skin must be rubbed 
with this two or three times, at intervals of a day. 

When sufficiently dry, the skin may be rolled up and packed. 
The hair ought to be inwards, wi.th a layer of dried grass in- 
tervening, to prevent friction during conveyance. The 
operation of rolling up the skin must be begun at the head. 

If the journey is long, the skin should be unrolled, and 
placed in the sun for a few hours, and the places liable to the 
attack of moths should be again rubbed with turpentine. 

When a skin thus prepared has reached the place where it is 
to be put up, it must undergo a preparation previous to its 
being mounted. In the first place, it must be extended along 
the ground with the hair undermost, so that it may acquire 
fresh pliability, and those parts which remain stiff must be 
moistened with tepid water. The skin must then be placed 
in a large vessel of water saturated with alum, there to re- 
main eight or ten days; after which, it must be extended on 
half rounded pieces of wood, and thinned with a sharp knife, 
which is facilitated by the projections of the wood, enabling 
the operator the more easily to cut it, while it is gradually 
shifted, till the whole has been pretty equally thinned. When 
this operation is completed, it is allowed to soak in water with 
an equal quantity of that saturated with the alum. Twenty- 
four hours will be sufficient. 

In hunting for snakes, great caution must be exercised, as 
it is well known that the bite of some of these proves fatal 
within a quarttr of an hour, particularly that of the rattle- 
snake and some others. Indeed, it would be more prudent to 
allow the natives to hunt for these poisonous reptiles, as they 
are better acquainted with their haunts, and the means of 



QUADRUPEDS AND BIRDS. 277 

defense to be employed in this dangerous pursuit. They are 
also better acquainted with those which are poisonous. We 
may, however, remark, that the poisonous snakes have, in 
general, much larger heads than those which are harmless, and 
their necks are also narrow. 

Shells. Shells, on account of the elegance and variety of 
their forms, and beauty of their colors, are objects much 
sought after, not only by naturalists but also by most persons 
who are unacquainted with science. There is no species, par- 
ticularly in remote climes, which does not deserve to be 
brought home, the things most common in those countries 
being frequently the most rare in ours. Shells are found on 
every part of the surface of the globe. Some are inhabitants 
of the land, while others only frequent rivers, lakes, ponds, 
and ditches; and another and more numerous class live in the 
ocean. Land-shells are spread over the whole surface of the 
earth, and although more accessible, are perhaps less known 
than those which inhabit the " mighty deep." 

Land-Shells, for the most part, are to be found creeping 
abroad either in the evening or after a gentle shower of rain. 
During the heat of the day they retire to shaded retreats, un- 
der thick bushes, the crevices of rocks, the hollows of decayed 
trees, or under their bark ; beneath stones, amongst moss, or 
in holes in the ground. A little experience will teach the 
naturalist readily to find their retreats. 

Fresh Water Shells must be sought for, if in deep lakes, 
with a dredge, or if in shallow places, with a tin spoon fixed 
on the end of a stick. This is made of a circular piece of tin 
four inches and a half in diameter, beat concave, and then 
perforated with numerous small holes, not exceeding the 
sixteenth part of an inch in diameter ; around this must be 
soldered a perpendicular rim three-quarters of an inch broad, 
and also perforated with holes. To this must be attached a 
hollow tubular handle three inches long, for the insertion of 



278 TAXIDEK.MY. 

a walking-stick. It must have a few holes towards its outer 
end for passing a string through to tie it firmly and prevent 
it being lost. With this spoon the collector must rake along 
the mud at the bottom of ditches or ponds, and after bring- 
ing a quantity to the surface, he must wash the mud entirely 
a way by shaking the spoon on the top of the water, and it 
will pass through the holes and leave the shells. The sharp 
edge of the spoon is also useful for detaching aquatic shells 
from the under surface of the leaves of water-plants. 

The large swan-muscle (Anadonta Cygnea), and other ana- 
dons, generally lie deep in the mud, so that they cannot be 
procured by dredging. I found it necessary to invent a net 
to fish for these. This consisted of an iron triangle of twelve 
inches, with a hollow handle fixed on its base, and in this is 
inserted a pole of sufficient length to reach the bottom. It is 
firmly screwed to the handle. A net is attached to the tri- 
angle either of twine or hair-cloth. The point of the triangle 
should be sharp so that it may the more easily penetrate the 
mud, and it is drawn through it in situations where shells 
are supposed to exist. 

Marine Shells. These are to be found in all seas ; some 
of them inhabit rocks on the shore within high-water mark ; 
others reside in deep water, and can only be taken by dredg- 
ing, or by the use of a kind of net called in France the gan- 
gui, and an instrument called the rake has also been success- 
fully used. 

Different species of sea-weed are frequently covered by 
minute shells weeds should always be carefully examined. 
Many of the smaller and microscopic shells are found at 
high- water mark among the fine dross and drifted fragments 
of shells; this sand should be brought home and examined 
at leisure. To facilitate the process a small wire-cloth sieve 
should be made of about six or seven inches square and all 
the sand sifted through it and the shells left, 



INSECTS. 279 

Molluscous Animals. Many species of worms and other 
soft invertebrate animals are to be caught also by the dredge. 
There is no way of preserving these animals except by put- 
ting them in spirits. Animals of this kind are still very im- 
perfectly known, notwithstanding the researches of Lamarck, 
Poli, and other celebrated naturalists. Every opportunity 
should, therefore, be embraced of bringing them home; in- 
deed, we are still little acquainted with those which inhabit 
our own seas. 

When animals of this kind are procured in foreign parts a 
careful noting of the latitude should be taken ; and it should 
be stated whether they live singly or are congregated, if they 
are phosphorescent, and if they were taken in deep water. 
And as these animals are very liable to lose their colors by 
being put in spirits, a careful noting of these should be taken 
whenever they are caught, as the colors are very evanescent; 
or, what would be still better, a drawing of the animal should 
be made. 

Intestinal Worms. Whenever we have killed either a 
quadruped, bird, or fish, we should carefully examine the 
stomach and intestinal canal of the animal to see if there are 
any worms; indeed, there are few animals without them; 
they must also be preserved in spirits. Besides the stomach 
and intestines, worms are also found in the livers and other 
parts of the body; also in the back of Skates and various 
fishes. 

INSECTS. 

This class is subject to infinite variety, according to climate 
and soil. The entomologist, or the mere collector, must not 
confine himself to those whose beauty of coloring renders 
them attractive, but collect all that come in the way. Those 
species which have wings, and fly around plants, we take by 
means of gauze nets, and also those which swim in the water. 



280 TAXIDERMY. 

Those which live on putrid substances, and such us are dis- 
agreeable to the touch, are seized with pincers; they are first 
put into camphorated spirits to render them clean. Trees are 
the habitations of innumerable insects; many of them skulk 
under the old rotten bark, and others attach themselves to the 
foliage. A cloth should be spread under the trees, or an um- 
brella, and the branches shaken with considerable force, when 
they will fall down, and may then be caught. 

Insects are killed by making a crow-quill into a long point 
and dipping it into prussic acid; an incision with it may be 
made immediately below the head of the insect betwixt the 
shoulders, which usually produces instant death. But this 
acid must be used with much caution, because its effects are 
almost as instantaneous and fatal in the human subject as in 
the lower animals. When cork cannot be had for lining the 
bottoms of the boxes, a layer of beeswax may be used in its 
stead. The pin should be deeply sunk in this substance, as it 
is more liable to loosen than when in cork. 

It is of much importance to procure the caterpillar as well 
as the insect, and, in this case, some of the leaves on which 
it feeds should be placed in a box beside it, so that it may 
reach maturity. A small perforation should be made in the 
box for the admission of air. 

Every kind of insect, except butterflies, sphinges, and 
moths, may be preserved in bottles of spirits, which will not 
injure them; when they are taken out they are immediately 
placed in the position in which it is wished to preserve them, 
and they are then allowed to dry. Another mode of preserv- 
ing coleopterous insects, such as beetles, etc., is to put them 
in a dry box amongst fine sand. A row of insects is placed 
in a layer of sand, and then a new layer of about an inch in 
depth laid on the top, and so on till the box is filled. This 
mode of packing will not, however, do with soft insects and 
those having fine wings. 

It is extremely desirable that all the different kinds of 



BRITISH INSECTS. 281 

Spiders should be caught, particularly those said to be venom- 
ous; also termites, or white ants, the different scolopendra, 
and gaily worms, etc. The nests of spiders and other in- 
sects should also be sent home; in short, every insect which is 
remarkable, in any way, either for its history or properties. 

It is also of much importance to bring specimens of the 
plants on which they feed; these should be dried, and their 
localities marked, the kind of soil on which they grow, and 
the situations, whether moist or dry, should be noted. 



BRITISH INSECTS. 

Woods, Hedges, and Lanes. By far the greatest por- 
tion of insects are found in these situations. In woods, the 
entomologist must beat "the branches of the trees into his 
folding net, and must select for this purpose the open paths, 
skirts, etc. The trunks of trees, gates, and timber which is 
cut down, should be carefully examined, and a great many 
lepidopterous and coleopterous insects are found in these 
situations, and in no other. In hedges and lanes, many of 
the most valuable and beautiful insects are found, as also in 
nettles and other plants which grow under them; these should 
be well beat, but more especially when the white thorn blos- 
soms in the months of May and Juno. Hedges where the 
roads are dusty are very seldom productive. 

Heaths and Commons. Many insects are peculiar to 
these situations from the plants which grow on them, as well 
as from the dung of cattle, by which many of them are fre- 
quented, in the latter of which many thousands of insects 
may be found in a single day, in the months of April and 
May. These are principally of the Order Coleoptera. 

Sand Pits. These are favorable for the propagation of 
Capris lunarius, Notoxus monoccros, ixus sulcirostris and 



282 TAXIDERMY. 

other rare insects. Minute species are found abundantly at 
the roots of grass. 

Meadows, Marshes and Ponds. In meadows, when 
the ranunculi or buttercups are in blossom, many Muscm and 
und dipterous insects generally abound. The flag-rushes are 
the habitations of Cassida, Donacina and others. Drills in 
marshes should be examined, as many species of insects are 
found on long grass. The larvae of various lepidoptcra and 
neuroptera are confined to these situations, more especially 
if hedges and trees are near the spot. Ponds are rich in 
microscopic insects. These are obtained by means of the land- 
ing net, which, for this purpose, need not be so long as 
represented in Pig. 26, and should be made of pretty thick cot- 
ton cloth, but sufficiently thin to allow the water to escape. 
The mud, which is brought up from the bottom of ponds and 
ditches, should be examined, and what small insects are 
found may be put in a small phial filled with water, which 
will not only clean them but keep them alive; and in many 
instances the naturalist will be surprised, upon the examina- 
tion of these, the most wonderful productions of nature. 

Moss, Decayed Trees, Roots of Grass, Etc. Many 
insects will be found in moss and under it; the roots and 
wood of decayed trees afford nourishment and a habitation to 
a number of insects; many of the larvas of Lepidoptera pene- 
trate the trunks of trees in all directions; most of the ceram- 
byces feed on wood, as well as some species of Carabidce Ela- 
teridm, etc. In seeking for these it is necessary to use the 
digger. It is sometimes requisite to dig six or seven inches 
into the wood before they are found. 

Banks of Ponds and Roots of Grass. These are a 
never-failing source of collecting, which may be followed at 
all seasons of the year, and in general with great success; 



BRITISH INSECTS. 283 

those banks are to be preferred which have the morning or 
noon-day sun. 

Banks of Rivers, Sandy Sea Shore, Etc. These situa- 
tions afford a great variety of Coleoptera, Crustacce, etc. The 
dead carcases of animals thrown on the shore should be exam- 
ined, as they are the receptacles and food of Silphiodce, 
Staphilinidce, etc. May and June are the best seasons for 
collecting these insects. 

Dead Animals and Dried Bones should be constantly 
examined, for these are the natural habitats of several insects. 
It is not uncommon for country people to hang dead moles on 
bushes; under these the entomologist should place his net, 
and shake the boughs on which they are hung, as many of the 
coleoptera generally inhabit these. 

Fungi and Flowers. These are the constant abode of 
insects, and many curious species will be found on them. 

It is a mistaken idea that insects are only to be found in 
summer, as they are to be met with, either in a living or pupa 
state, at all seasons. Dried moss, beneath the bark of trees 
and under stones are extremely likely places to find insects in 
winter; and even then the entomologist is more likely to pro- 
cure some of the rare species than in summer, as these are 
ranging in search of food and in situations hidden from view. 

At this season, if the weather is mild, the pupas of Lepidop- 
tera will be found at the roots of trees, more especially those 
of the elm, oak, lime, etc., or beneath the underwood, close 
to the trees, and these frequently at the depth of some inches 
under the ground. 

In the months of June, July and August the woods are the 
best places to search for insects. Most of the butterflies are 
taken in those months, flying about in the day-time only. 
Moths are either found at break of day or at twilight in the 
evening. The following method of taking moths is pointed 



284 TAXIDERMY. 

out by Haworth, in speaking of the Oak Moth (Bombyx 
Quercus}. "It is a frequent practice with the London Aure- 
lians," says lie, " when they breed a female of this and some 
other day-flying species, to take her, whilst yet a virgin, into 
the vicinity of woods, where, if the weather is favorable, she 
never fails to attract a numerous train of males, whose only 
business seems to be an incessant, rapid and undulating 
flight in search of their unimpregnated females, one of which is 
no sooner perceived than they become so much enamored of 
their fair and chaste relation as absolutely to lose all kinds of 
fear for their own personal safety, which, at other times, is 
effectually secured by the reiterated evolutions of their strong 
and rapid wings. So fearless, indeed, have I beheld them on 
these occasions as to climb up and down the sides of a cage 
which contained the dear object of their eager pursuit in exactly 
the same hurrying manner as honeybees, which have lost 
themselves, climb up and down the glasses of a window/' 





FOR VARIOUS ARTICLES USED IN THE PRESERVATION 
AND SETTING UP OF ANIMALS. 




SOLUTION OF CORROSIVE SUBLI- 
MATE. 

Mr. Watertori 1 * Method. 

JUT a good large teaspoonful of well-pounded corrosive 
sublimate into a wine bottle full of alcohol (spirits 
of wine). Let it stand over night, and the next 
morning draw it off into a clean bottle. When the solution 
is applied to black substances, and little white particles are 
perceived on them, it will be necessary to make it weaker, by 
the addition of some alcohol. 

A black feather dipped in the solution, and then dried, wil) 
be a good test of the state of the solution; if it be too strong 
it will leave a whiteness upon the feather. 

ARSENICAL SOAP. 
Invented by Becceur, ApotTiecary, Metz. 

Arsenic, in powder, - 2 pounds. 

Camphor, 5 ounces. 

White Soap, - 2 pounds. 
Salt of Tartar, 12 ounces. 

Powdered Lime, ... - 4 ounces. 

285 



286 TAXIDERMY. 

The soap must be cut in small and very thin slices, put into 
a crucible with a small quantity of water, held over .a gentle 
fire, and frequently stirred with a wooden spatula, or a piece 
of wood of any kind. When it is properly melted, the pow- 
dered lime and salt of tartar must then be added and thor- 
oughly mixed. It must now be taken off the fire, the arsenic 
added gently, and stirred. The camphor must be reduced 
into a powder by beating it in a mortar, with the addition of 
a little spirits of w : ne. The camphor must then be added 
and the composition well mixed with a spatula while off the 
fire. It may be again placed on the fire to assist in mak- 
ing the ingredients incorporate properly, but not much 
heated, as the camphor will very rapidly escape. It may 
now be poured into glazed earthen pots and allowed to cool, 
after which a piece of paper should be placed over the top, 
and afterward some sheep leather, and then set aside for 
use. The composition is about the thickness of ordinary 
flour paste. 

When it is necessary to use the soap, put as much as 
will answer the purpose into a preserve pot and add to it 
about an equal proportion of water. This is applied to the 
skin or feathers with a bristle brush. 

N. B. It should be kept as close as possible and used 
with caution, as it is a deadly poison. 

The above is the recipe made use of at he Jardin des 
Plantcs, Puris. 

Mr. Laurent's Recipe. 

A distinguished French naturalist, Laurent, recommendi 
the following composition, after ten years' experience, for 
preserving the skins of stuffed animals. He observes at the 
same time that it penetrates them with greater readiness, 
and preserves them much better than any preparation which 
has hitherto been in use. 

"Arseniate of Potash, - - 2 drachms. 

Sulphate of Alumine, 2 drachmi. 



RECIPES. 287 

Powdered Camphor, - -2 drachms. 

White Soap, powdered, - - ounce. 

Spirits of Wine, - - 6 ounces. 

Essence of Thyme, - 3 drops. 

The arseniate of potash, sulphate of alumine, and soap, are 
to be placed in a phial with a large mouth, and the spirits 
of wine to be poured on them at a heat of twenty- five de- 
grees, and they will be perfectly combined in twenty-four 
hours. The essence of thyme is then added, when the phial 
must be carefully corked. This composition is to be shaken 
together before it is made use of, and it must be spread 
over the skin of the animal or bird with a brush. 

SOLUTION OF PEARL-ASHES. 

Two ounces of pearl-ash to one gallon of water. 

ANNEALED IRON WIRE. 

Take common iron wire, make it red hot, and suffer it to 
cool gradually ; this renders it soft and pliable, so that it 
may be easily bent in any direction. 

CEMENT. 

Fine Whitening, - - 2 ounces. 

Gum-Arabic, 2 ounces. 

Finest Flour, - -g- ounce. 

Ox-Gall, a teaspoonful. 

The whole to be dissolved, and mixed well with water into 
thick paste. 

This is well adapted for attaching different objects, and 
especially for fixing shells to pasteboard, etc. 

GUM PASTE. 

White Sugar Candy, - 2 ounces. 

Common Gum-Arabic, 4 ounces. 

Let these be melted in a pot of hot water, and then strained 
through a linen or horse-hair sieve. When properly dis- 



288 TAXIDERMY. 

solved, add to it two tablespoonsfuls of starch, or hair-pon- 
der, and mix the whole well together. This paste may be 
used for many purposes, and it never spoils. It may be 
dried, and by pouring a little warm water on it, it will soon 
be ready for use. If it is wished to be all melted, and hur- 
riedly, the pot containing it should be placed in warm water, 
or sand. 

FLOUR PASTE. 

Make flour paste in the ordinary way, and add to it a small 
portion of the solution of corrosive sublimate, or powdered 
corrosive sublimate. This will prevent the attack of mites, 
to which paste is very liable when dried. This paste may -be 
dried into a cake, and moistened when required. 

SOLUTION OF GUM-ARABIC. 

The solution of gum-arabic is made by simply adding water 
to it. When used as a varnish, or for attaching objects, it is 
extremely apt to get too brittle, in very warm weather, and 
to crack, or split off in scales; to prevent this, a quarter of 
an ounce of white or brown sugar-candy must be added to 
two ounces of gum-arabic, 

PAPER PASTE, GUMMED. 

Take a coffe-pot, filled with water, and add to it a quantity 
of paper, which has been slightly sized, like that used for 
printing engravings. Let it boil three hours, and, when the 
water has evaporated, boil it again for a similar length of 
time. Take out the paper, and squeeze it well in a colander, 
and then pound it in a mortar, until it is reduced to a very 
fine paste. It must then be dried. When it is required for 
use, add to it some of the solution of gum-arabic, and keep 
it in a pot for use. 

POLLEN POWDER. 

The paper made as above directed, when well dried, is 
pounded in a mortar till it becomes a very fine powder; it is 



RECIPES. 289 

then put into a tin pepper-box, and when any of the parts of 
parrot's bills, etc., are wished to have this powdered appear- 
ance, a little of the solution of gum-arabic is washed over 
the part with a camel-hair pencil, and the powder dusted on 
it and allowed to dry. 

RED VARNISH. 

Take a stick of red sealing wax, beat it down with a ham- 
mer, and then put it into a phial, with an ounce of strong 
spirits of wine, which will dissolve it within four or five hours. 
It may be applied to any part with a camel-hair pencil, and 
it will dry in less than five minutes. 

Black, yellow, and green, or indeed any color of varnish, 
may be made from sealing-wax of these various colors. 

To those unacquainted with the combination of colors, we 
may mention, that a mixture of blue and yellow produces 
green; pink and blue makes purple; red and yellow, orange; 
black, red, and yellow, brown; black and blue, gray. These 
may be varied, in an infinity of shades, by either color pre- 
dominating, and by the addition of other colors. 

LUTING FOR RENDERING BOTTLES AIR TIGHT. 

Common Resin. 

Red Ochre reduced into a fine powder. 

Yellow Wax. 

Oil of Turpentine. 

These must be melted over a fire in the following manner, 
and the vessel in which it is made should be capable of hold- 
ing three times the quantity required, to allow room for boil- 
ing up. An earthenware pipkin with a handle is the best 
thing for the purpose, and a lid must be made of tin to fit it. 
The luting will be rendered more or less brittle, or elastic, as 
the red ochre prevails: 

The wax is first melted, and then the resin; the ochre is 
then added in small quantities, and stirred quickly with a 
spatula each time. When all the ochre has been added, it 



290 TAXIDERMY. 

must be allowed to boil six or eight minutes; the turpentine 
is then added, and briskly stirred with the spatula, and con- 
tinue to boil it. There is considerable risk of the mixture 
taking fire, and should it do so, the lid must immediately be 
put on the vessel to extinguish it. 

To ascertain the consistence of the luting, a little must be, 
from time to time, dropped on a cool plate, or flat piece of 
iron. If it is too soft, more of the ochre must be added to it; 
and if too hard, additional wax and turpentine. 

TOW AND FLAX SLIVERS. 

These are fillets of prepared tow and flax, of from one to 
three inches in breadth. They are extremely uniform in 
their thickness, being made to weight, and can easily be 
procured from any flax-spinning mill, at a moderate price 
per pound weight. 

METHOD OF MAKING ENAMEL-EYES FOR ANIMALS. 

Much of the character and expression of animals depends 
upon their eyes; it will, therefore, be evident that great atten- 
tion is necessary in the artificial imitation of these. 

In this operation, a pipe of baked earth is used, or a tube 
of glass six or seven inches in length, at the end of which a 
little white enamel is placed. This is placed to the flame, so 
that it may be blown. This enamel forms a globe, whose 
dimensions depend upon the quantity of air introduced. 
When this globe is of the size wished, we place in the middle, 
and prependicularly to the point of the pipe, the quantity of 
enamel necessary to form the enamel. The second enamel is 
then incorporated with the first by presenting it to the flame, 
while attention is paid to turn the pipe gradually round, so 
that the enamel may diffuse itself equally, and the iris be ex- 
actly circular. If it is required that this iris should be of 
various colors, like that of man, for example, small filaments 
of enamel are distributed in diverging rays of the suitable 



RECIPES. 291 

color; the eye is then placed in the flame, until these have in- 
corporated with the iris, after which the pupil is placed as 
before directed, and the glass applied as before directed. 

During this operation, the globe is almost certain of sink- 
ing down, partly from the air escaping, partly from the heat, 
and from the pressure which is used in applying the different 
substances; air must again be supplied from time to time to 
prevent it from losing its form. This becomes particularly 
necessary when glass is applied, and when it is extended over 
the whole surface of the iris. 

The eye having got its form and size, the pipe is taken 
away. To effect this, after the air has been introduced, the 
entrance of the pipe is stopped with the finger, and the back 
part of the eye exposed to the flame; when the air contained 
in the globe, and rarefied by the pipe, comes through at the 
place where the flame has most action. This opening is pro- 
longed by turning the point of the flat pincers, or an iron- 
wire, all round the pipe; one point only is left by which the 
eye remains fixed. It is then warmed equally all over, after 
which it is exposed to a gentle heat, and when it again cools, 
it is separated from the pipe. 

ARTICLES REQUIRED FOR SKINNING AND MOUNTING QUAD- 
RUPEDS, BIRDS, REPTILES, AND FISHES. 

1. A box containing scalpels of different shapes; a pair of 

scissors with pointed blades, and two or three pointed 
forceps of different sizes, the extremities of one of 
which ought to be indented. 

2. Two flat pincers, or pliers, large and small. 

3. A round pincer for turning wire. 

4. A cutting pincer for wire. 

5. A hammer. 

6. Two files. 

7. A triangular. 

8. Points for perforating holes. 



292 TAXIDERMY. 

9. Asaddler's awl for drilling holes; also various shoemakers' 
awls, which will be found useful. 

10. Brushes of different sizes for putting the preservative on 

the animals' and birds' skins, and for smoothing and 
dusting the feathers. 

11. An assortment of iron -wire of all sizes. 

12. Flax and tow, coarse cotton. When these cannot be 

had, untwisted ropes or cords. A quantity of tow and 
flax slivers for twisting round the leg-bones of small 
quadrupeds and birds. 

13. Some small hardwood meshes for assisting in stuffing. 

Instructions to Travelers. The best means of procur- 
ing living animals, is by applying to the natives of the differ- 
ent countries, who are accustomed to their habits, and the 
situation in which they are likely to be found, and to take 
them in traps and snares. They are also more likely to be 
able to find their retreats, so that they may take these animals 
in a young state, and also birds in their nests. 

By thus securing animals while young, they are much more 
likely to reach home in a living state. Every exertion should 
be used to render them familiar, when, being habituated to 
the appearance of man, they will be more able to resist the 
effects of a tedious sea voyage than those which have been 
taken when wild, and are under a continued degree of excite- 
ment. Every care should be taken to soothe and caress 
them; and there is no animal whose manners cannot be 
softened by gentle treatment. During fine weather, they 
should be allowed to take exercise on the deck, as nothing is 
so injurious to their health and growth as being long pent up 
in a small cage. While thus confined, it will be obvious that 
they require a much smaller portion of food then when they 
can have sufficient room to exercise themselves. Many of 
these animals are lost from over-feeding. Their diet should 



RECIPES. 293 

be given with great regularity, but always in such quantity as 
they can easily digest. 

Next to food, cleanliness is of the utmost importance, and 
\f this requires too much of the attention of those who are 
bringing them home, it will be easy to procure the assistance 
of some of the crow. And unless this is strictly attended to, 
there is little chance of preserving their health. 

When animals' skins are imported, it is also necessary to 
bring the head and feet. Those of the mammalia, which can 
be put into a barrel or bottle, should be preserved entire in 
spirits. 

In the event of not being able to transport the carcase, th 
next best thing is to bring the skeleton along with the skin. 
It will not be necessary to mount these. All that is required 
is to boil the bones, take off the flesh, and dry them. After- 
wards all the bones belonging to the same skeleton should be 
put in a bag by themselves, taking care to fill up the bag with 
dried moss, or any other substance which will prevent 
friction. The more effectually to secure this, the small and 
tender bones ought to be wrapped in paper. It is of the ut- 
most consequence that not a bone should be lost. 

In shooting birds, it is of much importance not to use the 
shot too large ; indeed, it ought to be proportioned, as nearly 
as possible, to the size of the bird to be shot at. When the 
bird is killed, the blood must be carefully wiped away, and a 
little cotton must be put into the bill to prevent the blood 
flowing from it to injure the feathers. The wound should 
also be stuffed with cotton. 

Birds should be skinned as soon as possible, as the feathers 
are apt to fall off if kept too long. The os coccygis must be 
kept attached to the skin. If several individuals of the same 
species be killed, one should, if possible, be preserved entire 
in spirits, with the whole muscles of the body. If the bird 
has a fleshy crest, it ought to be preserved in spirits. 

It is of the utmost consequence to procure the male, female 



294 TAXIDERMY. 

and young, and these at different ages besides, as many 
species are subject to great variety, in their progress from the 
young to the adult state. This is more particularly the case 
with Eagles and Hawks, many of which have been described 
as different species in their immature state. The eggs and 
nest should also be procured. 

Reptiles. The chief thing to be attended to in skinning 
reptiles is not to injure the scales ; and in the lizard kind, 
care must be taken not to break the tail. But for all the 
smaller and middle sized species, the best mode is to preserve 
them in spirits ; and of the larger kind which are skinned, 
the skeletons ought to be kept. The flesh should be taken 
away with knives and scalpels as well as possible, and the 
bones thoroughly dried, and packed in a box with cotton or 
grass, and they can be articulated after they are brought 
home. When the skeletons are too large, they may be sepa- 
rated into convenient parts for packing. 





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